Showing 114 results

names
Corporate body

Aberdeen University Press

  • C0050
  • Corporate body
  • 1900-1996

Aberdeen University Press was first incorporated in 1900 but the printers from which it was formed had been producing books and journals for Aberdeen’s two universities – King’s College and Marischal College – for twenty-five years before their amalgamation in 1865. The Press’s initial reputation was for the production of high quality books requiring specialist skills.
The company existed in this form until it became defunct in 1996 and was then relaunched in 2013.

African National Congress

  • C0049
  • Corporate body
  • 1912 - present

The African National Congress (ANC) is South Africa's governing party and has been in power since the transition to democracy in April 1994. The organisation was initially founded as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 in Bloemfontein, with the aim of fighting for the rights of black South Africans.

The organization was renamed the ANC in 1923. While the organization’s early period was characterized by political inertia due to power struggles and lack of resources, increasing repression and the entrenchment of white minority rule galvanized the party. As a result of the establishment of apartheid, its aversion to dissent by Black people and brutal crackdown of political activists, the ANC together with the SACP formed a military wing, uMkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation/ MK) in 1961.

Through MK, the ANC waged the armed struggle and obtained support from some African countries and the Soviet block for its activities. With the increasing internal dissent, international pressure and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the apartheid government was forced to enter into negotiations with the ANC. This saw the collapse of apartheid and the ushering in of democratic rule in 1994.

African National Congress Women's League

  • C0110
  • Corporate body
  • 1931-

The African National Congress (ANC) when it was formed in 1912, did not accept women as members. There was no broad women's organisation during the first decades of the ANC's existence. In 1931 the Bantu Women's League (BWL) was recognised as the women's branch of the ANC. Its first president was Charlotte Maxeke. The BWL was mostly involved in passive resistance and concentrated on the fight against passes for black women. In 1943 women were formally admitted as ANC members. The ANC Women's League was formed in 1948.

Amnesty International

  • C0084
  • Corporate body
  • 1961- present

Amnesty International is a human rights charity that has grown from seeking the release of political prisoners to upholding the whole spectrum of human rights. Their work protects and empowers people - from abolishing the death penalty to protecting sexual and reproductive rights, and from combatting discrimination to defending refugees and migrants’ rights. We speak out for anyone and everyone whose freedom and dignity are under threat.

Anarpeace

  • C0016
  • Corporate body
  • c.1976-1994

An organisation which supported the work of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the Anti-Apartheid Movement It publishing a monthly newsletter and was based in Glasgow.

Anti Apartheid Movement | Scottish Committee | Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action Against Apartheid

  • C0012
  • Corporate body

The Scottish arm of Local Authority Action Against Apartheid (LAAA), which was established to act in an advisory and co-ordinating capacity. It encouraged local authorities to adopt anti-apartheid policies including sports and cultural boycotts, disinvestment from the South African economy, purchasing policies avoiding South African goods and raising awareness about apartheid through education. In the 1990s councils were encouraged to develop links with communities in South Africa and the LAAA sent an observer team to the South African elections in 1994.

Anti Apartheid Movement | Southern Africa: the Imprisoned Society

  • C0010
  • Corporate body
  • 1960-1992

The AAM established a political prisoners sub-committee which operated during the late 1960s and early 1970s and then in 1973 held a major conference called 'Southern Africa: the Imprisoned Society' to highlight the plight of those imprisoned for their political beliefs. The name of this conference, abbreviated to SATIS, was adopted by the sub-committee and became the focus of the AAM's political prisoner work for the next twenty years.

Anti Apartheid Movement |Local Authority Action Against Apartheid

  • C0011
  • Corporate body
  • 1960s-1995

As early as 1960 local authorities in Britain played a part in the international campaign against apartheid. A United Nations resolution in 1982 recognised this and following a conference held in Sheffield in March 1983 the National Steering Committee on Local Authority Action Against Apartheid (LAAA) was established to act in an advisory and co-ordinating capacity. It encouraged local authorities to adopt anti-apartheid policies including sports and cultural boycotts, disinvestment from the South African economy, purchasing policies avoiding South African goods and raising awareness about apartheid through education. In the 1990s councils were encouraged to develop links with communities in South Africa and the LAAAA sent an observer team to the South African elections in 1994.

Anti-Apartheid Movement

  • C009
  • Corporate body
  • 1959-1994

On 26 June 1959, South African Freedom Day, a group of South African exiles and their British supporters met in London under the umbrella of the Committee of African Organisations to organize a boycott of goods imported from South Africa. The meeting was addressed by Julius Nyerere, then President of the Tanganyika Africa National Union, and Father Trevor Huddleston and was held in response to a call from the African National Congress (ANC) and the All-African Peoples Conference for an international boycott of South African goods. By the autumn of 1959 the group had evolved into an independent Boycott Movement led by Tennyson Makiwane of the ANC and Patrick van Rensburg of the South African Liberal Party. The group decided to call for a national boycott month in March 1960 as a moral gesture of support for the people of South Africa and gradually won the support of the British Labour and Liberal Parties and the Trades Union Congress.

The month of action began with a rally of 8,000 people in Trafalgar Square on 28 February addressed by the Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell, Liberal MP Jeremy Thorpe and Trevor Huddleston. During the month many local authorities joined the boycott and over five hundred local boycott committees were established all over the country. Leaflets were distributed describing life under apartheid for the black population and three editions of a newspaper, Boycott News, were published. On 21 March the South African police opened fire on men, women and children protesting against the pass laws at Sharpeville in the Transvaal, killing sixty-nine. These shootings, when British-made Saracen tanks had been used, led to strong international protests and, in London, to another rally in Trafalgar Square and demands for the termination of British arms supplies to South Africa. In South Africa itself a state of emergency was declared and the ANC and the recently formed Pan African Congress were banned and went underground. The members of the Boycott Movement realised that a permanent organisation was needed to campaign for the eradication of apartheid and during the summer of 1960 the Movement was restructured and renamed the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM). It resolved to work for the total isolation of the apartheid system in South Africa and to support those struggling against the apartheid system.

The AAM drew its support from a country-wide network of local anti-apartheid groups, some of which had previously been local boycott committees, from individual members and from affiliated organisations such as trades union councils and constituency political parties. Professional and special interest groups arose which worked with the AAM as did Local Authorities Against Apartheid to co-ordinate local authority action. The AAM co-operated with similar anti-apartheid groups which existed in many countries around the world, exchanging information and meeting at international conferences. During the 1980s groups in Europe formed the Liaison Group of National AAMs in the European Community in order to lobby the European Parliament and Council of Ministers.

The Executive and National Committees of the AAM were established in 1960 and remained the main management committees of the Movement throughout its existence. The Executive Committee consisted of elected members, generally met monthly and was the main decision-making body. The National Committee consisted of thirty elected members and representatives of both groups and affiliated organizations and met five or six times a year. The Officers of the AAM met between Executive Committee meetings and discussed staffing matters and some sensitive policy issues. Minutes were rarely taken and few papers survive from the officers' meetings. From 1962 there were Annual General Meetings for which annual reports, accounts and other documents were prepared and when policy was decided by vote of the participants. Over the years the AAM had several other committees, some short-lived, to work on specific issues. The most important of these were the Black Solidarity, Health, Multi-Faith, Trade Union, Women's and Youth Committees.

The AAM's campaigning work covered a wide range of areas. The consumer boycott remained a constant element but other economic campaigns became equally prominent, particularly ones concerning investment in South Africa by British and international companies and banks. In the area of economic campaigns the AAM collaborated closely with End Loans to Southern Africa (ELTSA) for which see the ELTSA archive at the Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House (MSS Afr. s. 2350). The efforts to isolate apartheid South Africa were pursued through lobbying for boycotts of sporting, cultural and academic contacts and for the cessation of military and nuclear links. Campaigning on behalf of political prisoners was an important area of work, organised during the 1960s through the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners and later through SATIS (Southern Africa: the Imprisoned Society). Campaigning on behalf of Nelson Mandela began at the Rivonia trial and was reinvigorated from the time of his 60th birthday in 1978 until his release in February 1990.

The AAM's work did not focus solely on South Africa but also on the Southern African region in which South Africa had so much influence. It supported the struggles for freedom in Namibia, Zimbabwe and the former Portuguese colonies of Angola, Mozambique and, in West Africa, Guinea-Bissau. In this the AAM co-operated with African liberation movements, particularly the ANC and the South West African Peoples' Organisation (SWAPO of Namibia).

Following the first democratic elections in South Africa in April 1994 an extraordinary general meeting of the AAM decided to dissolve the Movement and create a successor organisation to promote peace and development in the Southern African region. Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA) was launched in October 1994. The final meeting of the AAM Executive Committee decided to establish an AAM Archives Committee to support the cataloguing of the Movement's archives.

Anti-Apartheid Movement | Scottish Committee

  • C0005
  • Corporate body
  • 1976-1994

On 26 June 1959 a group of South Africans and their British supporters held a public meeting in Holborn Hall, Theobalds Road, London, to call for a boycott of fruit, cigarettes and other goods imported from South Africa. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Committee of African Organisations (CAO). The main speaker was Julius Nyerere, then President of the Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU), joined by Kanyama Chiume of the banned Nyadaland African National Congress, Tennyson Makiwane and Vella Pillay from South Africa’s African and Indian Congresses, Michael Scott and Trevor Huddleston. None of the speakers had a base in British politics. The choice of date for the meeting was 26 June, South Africa Freedom Day, and the choice of tactic, like the date, had wholly South African origins. On 29 December 1959 the Committee met for the first time under its new name the Boycott Movement Committee. This Committee cast its net wide and letters for support were sent to trade unions, co-ops, womens' organisations, constituency labour parties, local liberal parties, conservative associations and churches and religious organisations. The Boycott Movement became the Anti Apartheid Movement after the Sharpville massacre of 21 March 1960 and this movement not only fought for an end to apartheid in South Africa, but re-orientated its strategy to counter the evolving "unholy alliance" against African freedom in Southern Africa.

As far as the Anti Apartheid Movement in Scotland is concerned, branches supporting the organisation existed in Glasgow and Edinburgh through the 1960’s, however the mid 1970’s saw the establishment of a Scottish Committee. The Committee was formally established in 1976 as the Scottish Committee of the Anti Apartheid Movement and the minutes begin from 8 May 1976. It had a certain degree of autonomy within the UK structure. Brian Filling remained in the Chair and John Nelson remained Secretary of this Scottish Committee for its complete existence and went on to hold the same positions in Action for Southern Africa, ACTSA, Scotland. After the elections on 27 April 1994 and the victory of the ANC and Nelson Mandela, apartheid came to an end. The last Annual General Meeting of the Scottish Committee took place on 3 December 1994 when it was dissolved and its assets transferred to the Scottish Committee of Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

The first two minuted meetings of the Scottish Committee took place at Dundee University, Dundee and thereafter meetings on the whole alternated between venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh. The first office of the Scottish Committee at 266 Clyde Street, Glasgow was formally opened on 22 August 1987. The lease for these premises ran out in the summer of 1989 and alternative premises were found at 52 St Enoch Square, Glasgow. In 1992 premises were purchased in this building and these premises are still used by ACTSA (Scotland). Prior to having a central office, the Secretary’s home address was used for business purposes.

The aims and objectives of the Anti Apartheid Movement included informing the people of Britain and elsewhere about apartheid and what it meant to the people of Southern Africa. It also campaigned for international action to help bring the system of apartheid to an end and to co-operate with and support Southern African organisations campaigning against apartheid. The object of the Scottish Committee was to further the work of the Anti Apartheid Movement, especially in Scotland. This was done through promoting the exchange of information and ideas between anti apartheid groups, through co-ordinating the activities of such groups and where appropriate, through undertaking activities on its own account.

The Scottish Committee was responsible for the recognition of local anti apartheid groups in Scotland and therefore for their admission into membership of the Anti Apartheid Movement. Activities in Scotland covered a number of specific areas which were the focus of international campaigning. These included sports, culture, retail and academic boycotts, campaigns against nuclear and military collaboration, loans to South Africa and for oil sanctions. Scotland was also very active in the international campaigns for the release of Nelson Mandela over his 27 years in captivity. The Movement’s work was not limited to South Africa. It was one of the first organisations to highlight the "unholy alliance" between apartheid South Africa, the racist regime in Rhodesia, and Portuguese colonial rule in Africa. It was actively involved in promoting independence for the former Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique, as well as for Zimbabwe and Namibia and the Scottish Committee and its local groups played their part. The Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action Against Apartheid was established on 21 March 1985 and the Scottish Women’s Sub Committee was launched on 16 June 1987. The position of Youth Officer was created at the Scottish Committee annual general meeting in August 1987, and the Union Sub Committee was formally established in December of the same year. Supporters in Scotland also included church and religious groups and the student population. In local communities it was local anti apartheid groups who carried out the work of the Movement, and while these changed over the years, local areas of activity included Aberdeen, Ayr, Central Region, Clydebank, Cumbernauld, Cunninghame, Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dundee and Tayside, East Kilbride, Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fraserburgh, Fife, Glasgow East, Glasgow North West, Glasgow South, Hamilton, Inverness, Midlothian, Paisley/Renfrew and West Lothian.

The National Committee of the Anti Apartheid Movement, on which the Scottish Committee was represented, was responsible for the interpretation, implementation and development of policy between annual general meetings, and it met a minimum of three times per year. The Executive Committee, which also included one representative from the Scottish Committee, carried on the day to day work of the Movement and normally met monthly. The Scottish Committee was an integral part of the Movement. It was made up of two delegates from each recognised local anti apartheid group in Scotland, one delegate from each student and other anti apartheid groups in Scotland recognised by the Scottish Committee, and one delegate from each of a maximum of ten affiliated Scottish-level organisations. Office bearers were elected at the Scottish annual general meeting and these were chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, treasurer and other functional officers as found necessary. The Scottish Committee met monthly.

Some key events relating to Scotland are listed below. On the 4 August 1981, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, was granted the Freedom of the City of Glasgow. On 16 June 1986 St George’s Place, Glasgow was renamed Nelson Mandela Place, Glasgow. On 12 June 1987 the freedom marchers began their march as part of the Nelson Mandela Freedom at 70 Campaign. This was the most ambitious campaign in the Anti Apartheid Movement’s history to date and it set off from Glasgow. In 1990 the Scottish Committee organised SECHABA Festival and International Conference in Glasgow and on the 9 October 1993 Nelson Mandela visited the city of Glasgow where he was give the freedom of 9 British cities; Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Midlothian, Hull, Sheffield, Greenwich, Islwyn and Newcastle.

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