Showing 276 results

names

National Party of South Africa

  • C0109
  • Corporate body
  • 1914-2005

National Party (NP), in full National Party of South Africa, Afrikaans Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (1914–39, 1951–98), also called New National Party –(1998–2005), People’s Party or Re-united National Party (1939–51), South African political party, founded in 1914, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994. Its following included most of the Dutch-descended Afrikaners and many English-speaking whites. The National Party was long dedicated to policies of apartheid and white supremacy, but by the early 1990s it had moved toward sharing power with South Africa’s black majority.

J.B.M. Hertzog founded the National Party in 1914 in order to rally Afrikaners against what he considered the Anglicizing policies of the government of Louis Botha and Jan Christian Smuts. In 1924, after mild attempts to relax the colour bar, the Smuts government was defeated by a Nationalist-Labour coalition led by Hertzog, who in two terms sought to further emancipate South Africa from British imperial control and to provide greater “protection” for the whites from the black Africans and for the Afrikaners from the British. From 1933 to 1939 Hertzog and Smuts joined a coalition government and fused their respective followings into the United Party. Some Nationalists, led by Daniel F. Malan, however, held out and kept the National Party alive and, in 1939, reaccepted Hertzog as their leader in a reorganized opposition party known as the Re-united National Party, or People’s Party (Herenigde Nasionale Party, or Volksparty). The new party was weakened by wartime factionalism; and Hertzog and others with Nazi sympathies eventually walked out and formed the Afrikaner Party (1941).

The Re-united National Party returned victoriously in the 1948 elections and subsequently enacted a mass of racial legislation that was designed to preserve white supremacy in South Africa; the National Party named its policy “apartheid.” The party went on to consolidate its power, absorbing the Afrikaner Party in 1951. It renamed itself the National Party of South Africa (1951) and gradually augmented its control of the House of Assembly—from 73 seats in 1948 to 134 seats (81 percent) in 1977. The party was led successively by Daniel F. Malan (1948–54), Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom (1954–58), Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (1958–66), John Vorster (1966–78), P.W. Botha (1978–89), F.W. de Klerk (1989–97), and Marthinus van Schalkwyk (1997–2005). The National Party also broke South Africa away from the Commonwealth, making it a republic in 1961. From the premiership of Vorster on, the National Party attempted what it termed an “enlightened” (verligte) policy on the race question; but this meant hardly more than speeding up the formation of black “homelands” and alleviating—selectively—some of the apartheid policies found inconvenient to general economic and cultural development.

In 1982 much of the party’s right wing broke off in opposition to the granting of limited political rights to Coloureds (those of mixed descent) and Asians (primarily Indians) and formed the Conservative Party. Under de Klerk’s leadership from 1989, the National Party began taking steps away from apartheid and toward a constitutional arrangement that would allow political representation to the country’s black African majority. To this end, many repressive laws were repealed and black anti-apartheid political organizations were legalized. In 1992 a referendum called by de Klerk won a strong endorsement of the party’s reform policy and led to negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC) and other minority parties toward a new constitution. The National Party was defeated in South Africa’s first multiracial elections, held in April 1994, but remained a significant presence in Parliament, winning 82 seats. The party subsequently joined in the government of national unity formed by the ANC; it was awarded six cabinet posts, and de Klerk, along with Thabo Mbeki of the ANC, became deputy president of South Africa.

In June 1996 the National Party left the national unity government—its first time out of government since 1948. The party sought to recast its image by changing its name to the New National Party (NNP) in December 1998. In 1999, however, its support fell, and it won only 28 seats in Parliament. The following year the party formed the Democratic Alliance with the Democratic Party and the Federal Alliance, though the NNP withdrew in 2001. Later that year the party formed a pact with the ANC, its historic foe. After several years of declining popularity, in 2005 the party’s federal council voted to disband the party.

National Union of Mineworkers

  • C0112
  • Corporate body
  • 1945-present

The National Union of Mineworkers is a unique organisation in that it has a federal structure, which is comprised of area unions covering the length and breadth of Britain.

From Scotland to South Wales the NUM represents miners, past and present, working and retired, as well as supporting wherever we can their extended families.

The Union has been highly successful in representing miners who suffered greatly from chest diseases and other injuries caused by the negligence of coal industry employers.

National Union of Students Scotland

  • C0110
  • Corporate body
  • 1971-present

NUS Scotland is an autonomous body within the National Union of Students. It is the national representative body of around 500,000 students studying in further and higher education in Scotland and was formed following the merger of NUS in Scotland with the Scottish Union of Students in 1971.

National Union of Students of the United Kingdom

  • C0023
  • Corporate body
  • 1922 - present

Established in 1922 the NUS has worked tirelessly on behalf of students and students’ unions. Their campaigning work has resulted in many positive changes within higher and further education, improving the lives of thousands of students.

Nelson | John | fl. 1976 - | Anti-Apartheid activist

  • P0003
  • Person
  • fl. 1976 -

John Nelson held several positions in the Scottish Committee for the Anti-Apartheid Movement, including: Scottish Committee Secretary, he sat on the Board of Directors for SECHABA Festivals Ltd. As of 2016 he still holds the position of Secretary for ACTSA Scotland, successor organisation to the Anti-Apartheid Movement.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

  • C0082
  • Corporate body
  • 1949 - present

NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means. It promotes democratic values and encourages consultation and cooperation on defence and security issues to build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict. NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military capacity needed to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under Article 5 of the Washington Treaty - NATO’s founding treaty - or under a UN mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organizations.

Nujoma |Sam |b.1929 |President of Namibia

  • P0035
  • Person
  • b. 1929

Nujoma was the first president of independent Namibia (1990-2005). In the 1950s he helped found the Ovamboland People's organisation, the forerunner of the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO). In 1960 he was named president of SWAPO during it's founding year, he stepped down from this position in 2007.

In 1987 he visited Glasgow and spoke at the City Chambers.

Open Aye | 2010-

  • C0122
  • Corporate body
  • 2010-

Open Aye was established by Becky Duncan as a social enterprise in 2010 and was given Community Interest Company status in 2017. Open Aye was established to produce photos and videos for third sector organisations across Scotland and for use in multi-media marketing. Its aim was to ensure accurate portrayals of issues, people and places, in order to tell engaging stories which could help positively influence social change. The key objective of Open Aye was to represent all, especially those who are often unheard, or mis-represented. Open Aye also runs participatory photo projects, or Social Action Research Projects, that act as either therapeutic programmes or issue based, advocacy projects.
Becky Duncan is a professional photographer, trained participatory facilitator and human rights enthusiast. She has an Honours degree in Film & Media / Documentary from Stirling University and a PDA in Professional Photography & Digital Imaging from Glasgow Metropolitan College. Becky worked for 7 years as a media strategist and planner on ad campaigns in London and Glasgow, working across big budget brands such as Guinness, Smirnoff, Louis Vuitton & Moet Hennessy, at Carat UK, London. In 2002 she moved away from doing commercial media strategy to more third sector based campaigns, at Feather Brooksbank Ltd, Edinburgh. She concentrated on charity and Scottish Governmental campaigns including Racism Awareness, Alcohol Awareness, Drugs Misuse Prevention, Organ Donation. In her time in advertising she was in the Drum magazine's "30 under 30", she was a finalist in the Fresh Young Media Person of the Year and previously she was part of a client / creative / media team which won a Marketing Society for Scotland Award for Excellence - Non Profit Sector, for their work on a charity. Becky Duncan had many years of experience of voluntary work within Glasgow, with refugee support organisations, resulting in extensive training in citizen analysis, communication strategies, humanitarian education, and assisting vulnerable groups. On becoming freelance, her first commission was from the Scottish Social Enterprise Coalition to document fourteen social enterprises across Scotland in 2009. Becky Duncan Photography Ltd was established in 2010 with Open Aye as a subdivision of the company, providing participatory projects. The two amalgamated and became Open Aye Ltd in 2016 and Open Aye C.I.C. in 2017, with Becky Duncan as Director and sole employee. The registered office address is Studio 228 The Briggait, 141 Bridgegate, Glasgow, Scotland.
Open Aye produced photos and videos for over 170 third sector clients in Scotland, between 2009-2019 and documented the social enterprise movement in Scotland. Issues covered have included diversity, housing, health & wellbeing, recovery, human rights, sectarianism, environmental stewardship and conservation. Advocacy campaigns have been used in the print & broadcast media, showcased within the Scottish Parliament and around local communities in museums, galleries, libraries, schools & shopping centres, including an exhibition of ‘10 years of social enterprise work’ at the Social Enterprise World Forum, Edinburgh, in 2018. Open Aye tackles a wide range of issues and topics through photography, including housing and homelessness, refugee issues, mental health, drugs recovery and LGBTQI ensuring that they are more appropriately represented in media communications and decision making processes.
Open Aye facilitates projects on behalf of charity partners, engaging with groups who do not often have a voice in traditional media. Participants are given cameras, skills, inspiration and a platform to tell their own stories and suggest solutions to a range of social issues. Open Aye works with specialist organisations to recruit participants and ensure they are supported on an on-going basis. Participatory project clients have included The British Red Cross, Scottish Natural Heritage, Shelter Scotland, Forestry Commission Scotland, Scottish Refugee Council, Aberlour Guardianship Service, Youthlink Scotland, Glasgow Association of Mental Health, Southside Housing Association, Govanhill Housing Association, Woodlands Trust, Healthy & Happy Development Trust, Central Scotland Green Network, Pavement Magazine, West of Scotland Regional Equality Council, Planning Aid for Scotland, and Photovoice. Teaching materials created by Open Aye participants have been used by Shelter Scotland to raise awareness on housing issues. The Simple Pleasures photo project for Scottish Natural Heritage resulted in a showcase at Glasgow’s Kelvingrove Museum. Awareness materials created by young refugees have gone on to be used across Europe as part of the British Red Cross’s Positive Images programme. Open Aye website.

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