Showing 222 results

names

South African Communist Party

  • C0021
  • Corporate body
  • 1921 - present

The South African Communist Party was founded in 1921 and has always been in the forefront of the struggle against imperialism and racist domination. The SACP is a partner in the Tripartite Alliance consisting of the African National Congress and the Congress of South African Trade Union. The Youth Wing of the SACP is the Young Communist League.

South African Congress of Trade Unions

  • C0111
  • Corporate body
  • 1955-present

SACTU was founded in 1955 by those who were critical of the decision taken by the Trade Union Congress of South Africa (TUCSA) that only registered (non-African) unions could join the congress. Its basic approach was that in South Africa industrial relations could not be divorced from politics and it openly engaged in political activities rather than confining itself to conventional trade union action. This made it an easy target for the authorities. SACTU was closely associated with the ANC and joined the Congress Alliance as its trade union wing. Its membership, almost exclusively black, grew rapidly in the aftermath of the Defiance Campaign but many of its leaders were banned and it was forced underground in 1960.

South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee

  • C0100
  • Corporate body
  • 1962-1990s

The South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC) was formed in South Africa in 1962. One of SAN-ROC's founders, Dennis Brutus, was arrested and jailed, placed under house arrest, and banned from all literary, academic and political activities. Brutus went into exile in 1966. In 1966 SAN-ROC began operating in exile in London and led campaigns to isolate South Africa on the sports field. In 1970 Brutus moved to the United States and SAN-ROC was then based in the United States and the United Kingdom. Sam Ramsamy (based in London) was Chairman from 1976-1990. Dennis Brutus was President (based in the United). SAN-ROC led the international sports boycott of apartheid South Africa.

South West Africa People's Organisation

  • C0055
  • Corporate body
  • 1960 - present

The South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) was founded in Windhoek, South West Africa (presently Namibia) on 19 April 1960 by Herman Toivo ja Toivo. The party was originally formed to advocated immediate Namibian independence from South Africa and became the country’s leading party following independence in 1990.

The SWA territory was entrusted by the League of Nations to South Africa under an administrative mandate after the First World War. After the Second World War, South Africa extended its apartheid policies to this territory and became a military occupier. After South Africa refused a United Nations order to withdraw from the trust territory in 1966, SWAPO turned to armed struggle.

SWAPO emerged as the sole liberation movement in the early 1960s because it had the support of the Ovambo, the largest ethnic group in Namibia. More a military organisation than a political one, SWAPO launched military operations against the South African government’s military positions. On 26 August 1966 the first major clash of the conflict took place, when a unit of the South African Police, supported by South African Air Force, exchanged fire with SWAPO forces. This date is generally regarded as the start of what became known in South Africa as the Border War.

Initially SWAPO suffered heavy losses against the South African Army but later SWAPO was backed by the Angolan ruling party, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, the Soviet Union, the Norwegian government and the African National Congress. SWAPO used Angola as a base for guerrilla warfare on Namibian soil; operations were carried out by SWAPO’s guerrilla force, the People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). Beginning in 1978 South Africa made periodic retaliatory land and air strikes into Angola. Herman Toivo ja Toivo, the founder of SWAPO, was imprisoned in South Africa for a 20-year term in 1968 but was released in 1984. Nujoma returned to Namibia in September 1989.

In 1978 the UN recognized SWAPO as the sole representative of the people of Namibia. Both SWAPO and South Africa agreed to a UN plan for a cease-fire, withdrawal of South African troops, and free elections to be guaranteed by UN security forces. After years of diplomatic maneuvering, South Africa finally accepted a UN resolution to that effect in December 1988. Sporadic fighting continued. In 1989 Nujoma was elected president and SWAPO won a majority of the delegates selected by the country’s voters to write a constitution for an independent Namibia. The following year a new constitution was adopted and Nujoma took office and in the same year South Africa completely withdrew unconditionally from Namibia.

SWAPO continued to dominate the political scene into the 21st century, transforming itself from a liberation movement into a governing party. SWAPO won the first and second election five years later.

Southern Africa Church News

  • C0087
  • Corporate body
  • c 1991

Southern Africa Church News provided a service faxing news predominately to the Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund press desk. It was located in London and run by Reverend John Evenson.

Southern Africa Coalition

  • C0089
  • Corporate body
  • fl. 1990-1991

The SAC was a Coalition of more than 60 organisations and churches, representative of many millions of British people, with the common objective of increasing public understanding of the need for the decisive measures to end apartheid and, through a programme of information, education and action, of seeking to secure a fundamental change in British government policy towards South Africa.

Southern African Development Community

  • C0077
  • Corporate body
  • 1992 - present

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a Regional Economic Community comprising 15 Member States; Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Established in 1992, SADC is committed to Regional Integration and poverty eradication within Southern Africa through economic development and ensuring peace and security.

Standard Chartered

  • C0096
  • Corporate body
  • 1969-present

Standard Chartered Bank was formed in 1969 through the merger of two separate banks, the Standard Bank of British South Africa and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China.

These banks had capitalised on the expansion of trade between Europe, Asia and Africa.

During the apartheid regime in South Africa the anti-apartheid movement led an investment boycott. The number of British companies investing in South Africa fell by 20 percent during this period Standard Chartered, the second largest bank in South Africa pulled out.

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