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Person

Budd, Zola | b 1966 | athlete

  • P0056
  • Person
  • b. 1966

Zola Budd was born on 26 May 1966 in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa. Budd burst into national prominence in 1983. In 1984 she gained international recognition when, at the age of 17, she broke the women's 5000m world record. As this performance took place in apartheid South Africa, the world track and field establishment refused to recognise the record. However, she was later to claim the world record officially, while representing Great Britain in 1985, clocking 14:48.07.

Despite being a world class athlete she could not compete in the 1984 Olympic games as South Africa had been banned from competing before the start of the Tokyo Olympic games in 1964. In 1984, Budd was granted a British passport and participated in the British team in the Los Angeles Olympic Games in that year. In the final of the 3,000m race, Budd and Mary Decker, the American favourite to win, accidentally collided. Budd eventually finished seventh, while Decker was carried from the track side. Although the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) jury found that Budd was not responsible for the collision, she was booed by the crowd who favoured Decker.

In a low key event in Crystal Palace, England, Budd on 26 August 1985 broke the 5 000m world record set by Ingrid Kristiansens of Norway sixteen years previously by more than ten seconds to set a new mark of 15 minutes 1.83 seconds. Budd stunned the sporting fraternity by running bare footed on her way to claim this magnificent feat. As South Africa was banned from competing in any sporting code with other countries, the event took place without publicity that might have attracted anti-apartheid demonstrators.

Budd returned to South Africa after she was banned by the IAAF in 1988 because she allegedly took part in an event in this country, though she insisted that she only attended the event and did not run. She retired from international competition for several years, but began racing again in South Africa and had an excellent season in 1991, when she was the second fastest woman in the world over 3,000m.

Budd is married to Mike Pieterse, a South African businessman and has three children. She still runs 16 – 24 km a day.

Calder, Juliann MacKinnon |1914-2008 | Principal of the Glasgow and West of Scotland College of Domestic Science

  • P0070
  • Person
  • 1914-2008

Juliann MacKinnon Calder (also known as Sheila Calder to close friends), was born in Glasgow in 1914. She graduated in 1936 with a BSc (Hons) Chemistry from the University of Glasgow. She then attended Jordanhill College of Education where she was awarded a double qualification in primary and secondary teaching. Following qualification she taught in primary schools in Kinross and Glasgow.

In January 1940 she was appointed to the Glasgow and West of Scotland College of Domestic Science where she taught Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Physiology and Hygiene. Drawing on her specialism in organic chemistry, she developed studies in textiles and synthetic materials. Whilst working full time she studied for a Master in Education, which she was awarded in 1948 from the University of Glasgow.

When Isobel Gibson, the Principal of the Glasgow and West of Scotland College of Domestic Science retired at the end of 1962, Juliann Calder was appointed her successor. Her strength of leadership guided the College through an important period of academic development. A new extension to the College to cater primarily for the sciences, was formally opened in September 1975. The new building was named the Calder Wing in honour of her work.

In 1975, under Juliann Calder’s administration, the College not only celebrated its centenary, but also received a royal accolade, changing its name to The Queen’s College, Glasgow. In that same year, Juliann Calder donated £200 to provide an annual prize in chemistry, which she asked to be named the Mary Andross prize in recognition of the contribution her former Head of Science had made to the College. Students were able to enrol on the first College degree course in Dietetics in September 1976 and one of her successors, Dr John Philips, said that “in many ways she brought the College forward 20 years academically.”

She was a Fellow of the Chemical Society; the Educational Institute of Scotland; and the Association of Home Economists. She was a past president of the Scottish Branch of the Association of Women Science Teachers and a member of several professional bodies, including the Society of Chemical Industry; the Catering and Institutional Management Association; the Association of Home Economists; and the Council of the National Committee for Education in Home Economics. She also served on several committees, notably being a member of the steering committee which set up organisation for the Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board.

Juliann Calder retired as Principal on 31st August, 1976. She died in Glasgow on 28 December 2008 at the age of 94 years.

Christie, Campbell | 1937-2011 | trade unionist

  • P0007
  • Person
  • 1937-2011

Christie was one of the leading trade unionist of his generation, he went on to be General Secretary of the Scottish Trades Union Congress (1986-1998). He was a key campaigner in establishing a Scottish Parliament and was involved in the work of the SC AAM.

Key events in which he featured during the campaigning of the SC AAM included: speaking at the Glasgow Green Rally in 1988 which was followed by a march to London as part of the Freedom at 70 campaign, he was also on the Board of Directors for 1990's Sechaba Festivals Ltd, and was one of the speakers at the Sechaba Conference.

Climie, Robert |1868-1929 |socialist, trade unionist and Labour MP

  • P0001
  • Person
  • 1868-1929

Robert (Bob) Climie was born in Kilmarnock, Scotland on 4th January 1868. He was the son of Robert Climie (who is recorded as working as a coalminer, hammerman, bolt maker and a colliery fireman) and a bonnet knitter (Mary McGarvie). Educated at the local School Board, Robert served his apprenticeship at the Britannia Works continuing with them as a journeyman. Early in his career he became involved in trade union activity and joined the Independent Labour Party (ILP).

As part of his political activity he spoke at the ILP’s outdoor meetings against the Boer War and was first elected as a local ILP councillor in 1905, developing a particularl interest in public health and housing.

Nominated by Ayrshire Trades Council, Robert Climie was a member of the Scottish Trades Union Congress (STUC) Parliamentary Committee from 1910 to 1918 and 1920 to 1923. He was the eighteenth STUC President in 1914 and was presented with a commemorative gong in honour of this position.

In the 1923 General Election Robert was returned as Labour MP for Kilmarnock, having unsuccessfully contested the seat in 1922. He was narrowly defeated in the 1924 General Election but won the seat back again in May 1929.

Robert was married to Jane [or Jeannie] McIldowie Meikle, also a Labour Party activist, and had a family of six sons and one daughter. He died on 3 October 1929 at the age of 61.

“…a small man of medium build, with dark hair and moustache, blue eyes and a fresh complexion. He was moderate in all things, always hard-working in the labour cause and a lifelong supporter of Ramsay MacDonald.” (Kilmarnock Standard, October 1929)

Crawford, Danny | 1920-2000 | trade unionist

  • P0008
  • Person
  • 1920-2000

Crawford played an important role in Scottish and UK politics for more than 20 years. During this time he was leader of the building workes' union Ucatt, served on the National Executive of the Labour Party (1980-82), was a Councillor and the chair for the Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action Against Apartheid.

One of the key events that he chaired during the campaign of the SC AAM was the meeting following the renaming of St George's Place to Nelson Mandela Place on 16th June 1986.

de Klerk, Fredrik Willem | b 1936 | Former President of South Africa

  • P0055
  • Person
  • b 1936

F W de Klerk was born in Johannesburg on 18 March 1936. F W de Klerk grew up in a political family, with both his father and grandfather serving high office. His father, Jan de Klerk, was a Cabinet Minister and the President of the South African Senate. In this political environment he learned the essential importance of timing. His brother is Dr Willem (Wimpie) de Klerk, a political analyst and one of the founders of the Democratic Party.

After finishing school in Krugersdorp, F.W. de Klerk graduated in 1958 from Potchefstroom University with BA and Ll.B degrees (the latter cum laude). At the same time he was awarded the Abe Bailey scholarship (an all-expenses paid educational tour to the United Kingdom). In 1969 he married Marike Willemse, with whom he had two sons and a daughter.

From 1961-1972 de Klerk practiced as an attorney in Vereeniging. During this time, he played an active part in Nationalist Party politics and in local educational affairs. He was offered the chair of Administrative Law at Potchefstroom University, but declined the position when he was elected Member of Parliament for Vereeniging in November 1972.

In 1975 he became information officer of the Transvaal National Party. He held several ministerial positions in the Cabinet of President P.W. Botha, including Minister of Post and Telecommunications and Sport and Recreation (1978-1979); Mines, Energy and Environmental Planning (1979-1980); Mineral and Energy Affairs (1980-1982); Internal Affairs (1982-1985); and National Education and Planning (1984-1989). In 1982 he became the Transvaal leader of the National Party after Dr Andries Treurnicht quit the party. In 1985 he was appointed chairman of the Ministers’ Council in the House of Assembly and in 1986 he became the House’s leader. When P.W. Botha resigned as leader of the National Party in February 1989, he was succeeded by de Klerk. In September he was elected the new State President. He soon announced his policy of reform: he hoped to create a suitable climate for negotiations which would end apartheid and bring about a new Constitutional dispensation for South Africa, based on the principle of one person, one vote.

In December 1989, de Klerk met with the imprisoned leader of the African National Congress (ANC), Nelson Mandela. On 2 February 1990, de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, the South African Communist Party (SACP) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). On 11 February Mandela was released. Negotiations with Mandela and other party leaders were held for the peaceful end of apartheid and transition to democratic rule. In 1993, De Klerk and Mandela were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts at reform in South Africa.

After 1994. After the 1994 elections, De Klerk was appointed the Second Vice President in President Mandela’s cabinet. In 1996 and other National Party members withdrew from their cabinet posts in order to establish the National Party as an effective opposition to the ANC. In 1997 De Klerk retired from politics.

Edwards, Fred | 1931 - 2008 | social worker

  • P0063
  • Person
  • 1931-2008

Fred Edwards was born on April 9th 1931, the only child of Reginald and Jessie Edwards. Raised in Norris Green Council Estate in Liverpool, he was educated at St Edwards College. After spending 10 years with the Royal and merchant navies, he became a probation officer in Liverpool in 1960. Taking unpaid leave in this time he gained a post graduate diploma in Social Studies at Glasgow University.
Edwards played a significant role in Scottish social work in the 1970s. In 1974 he was appointed Head of Social of Social work in Grampian, before moving to the same role in the Strathclyde region two years later. Viewing his department as a potential instrument in social justice, he was scathing on matters such a Strathclyde Children’s’ Homes, characterising them as ‘an industrial process.’
During the 1984-85 Miners’ Strike, Edwards authorised loans of £191,000 to unmarried miners. This was subsequently deemed to be illegal and Edwards was held personally accountable for the sum until the Government relented in the face of a public outcry.
In 1986, he was appointed visiting Professor of Social Policy at Glasgow University, and in 1992 was named a lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order. He retired in 1993, embarking on a ‘portfolio career’ by becoming a full time voluntary worker - focussing in the main on matters relating to the environment, social justice and religion. In 2002, along with his 2nd wife Mary, he established a water purification and female literacy project in Cambodia.
A devout Christian and active member of the Church of Scotland, he depicted his faith as one of ‘public orthodoxy, private heresy,’ noting that as he aged, his belief became more minimalist, yet more profound. After developing myeloma in 2005, he died three years later on October 18th 2008 at the age of 77.

Ekwueme, Alex | b 1932 | politician

  • P0009
  • Person
  • b 1932

Ekwueme was a graduate of the University of Washington (1955-57) who became the first elected Vice-President of Nigeria, serving in this role throughout the early 1980s. He is considered one of Nigeria's leading statesmen.

He accepted the Freedom of the City of Glasgow on behalf of Mandela on 4th August 1981.

Esack, Farid | b 1959 | Muslim scholar

  • P0051
  • Person
  • b 1959

Dr Farid Esack has an international reputation as a Muslim scholar, speaker and human rights activist. He has lectured widely on religion and Islamic studies and also served as a Commissioner for Gender Equality with Nelson Mandela's government. He has authored numerous Islamic books and is currently the Visiting Professor of Islamic Studies at Harvard Divinity School.

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