Showing 128 results

names
Corporate body

International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa

  • C0062
  • Corporate body
  • 1960-1990

The International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa (IDAF) was an anti-apartheid organization that smuggled £100 million into South Africa for the defense of thousands of political activists and to provide aid for their families while they were in prison.

IDAF grew out of Christian Action (CA), an organization set up by John Collins aimed at relating Christianity to economic, social and political life, and that worked towards reconciliation with Germany and help for the starving people of Europe. In 1948 Collins was appointed Canon of St Paul's Cathedral in London. CA raised money raised money for the families and dependents of those sent to prison during the Defiance Campaign. In 1954 John went to South Africa where he saw apartheid and its effects for himself, and met activists and leaders in the liberation movements. In 1956, when 156 activists were arrested and charged with High Treason, Canon Collins sent £100 to Ambrose Reeves, Bishop of Johannesburg, asking him to brief the best available defense lawyers and pledging CA to raise the funds to pay legal expenses and care for the families of the Treason Trialists. Reeves, foreseeing further repression, suggested widening CA's terms of reference and so the British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa (as it was originally called) was born. As repression in South Africa increased, Defence and Aid responded to ever more pressing political and legal defense needs.

The organization grew and began to receive international recognition and support, mainly from the Scandinavian countries and the United Nations. Several countries formed aid committees. IDAF went international in 1965, with branches in Britain, New Zealand, Scandinavia, Holland and India. On March 18, 1966, the then Mister of Justice Johannes Vorster banned the South African Defence and Aid Committee as an 'unlawful organization' under the Suppression of Communism Act but IDAF continued to send aid through secret channels. Over a period of 25 years, £100 million was smuggled into South Africa. The organization also had an extensive research and publication operation. Canon Collins died in 1982 and Horst Kleinschmidt was named Director of IDAF that same year, a position he held until the organization closed.

International Marxist Group

  • C0115
  • Corporate body
  • 1968-1982

The International Marxist Group (IMG) was a Trotskyist group in Britain, the national section of the Fourth International. It was formed in 1968.

The group emerged from the International Group, which had split from the Revolutionary Socialist League (RSL) in 1961 in support of the International Secretariat of the Fourth International (ISFI) over the RSL leadership, which was the ISFI local section. The IMG later superceded the RSL as the national section of the then reunited Fourth International.

The organisation published International throughout its existence. It launched The Black Dwarf publication in 1968, edited by Tariq Ali, which was superceded by Red Mole in 1970.

The IMG dissolved and entered the Labour Party in 1982 as the Socialist League.

Iona Community

  • C0029
  • Corporate body
  • 1938 - present

The Iona Community was founded in Glasgow and Iona in 1938 by George MacLeod, minister, visionary and prophetic witness for peace, in the context of the poverty and despair of the Depression. From a dockland parish in Govan, Glasgow, he took unemployed skilled craftsmen and young trainee clergy to Iona to rebuild both the monastic quarters of the medieval abbey and the common life by working and living together, sharing skills and effort as well as joys and achievement. That original task became a sign of hopeful rebuilding of community in Scotland and beyond. The experience shaped – and continues to shape – the practice and principles of the Iona Community.

Justice and Peace Scotland

  • C0073
  • Corporate body
  • 1979 - present

The Scottish Catholic Justice and Peace Commission was formed in 1979. It is the Scottish Commission of the Pontifical Council Justitia et Pax.

It functions as the Bishops' advisory body on issues of social justice, international peace and human rights with the responsibility for networking existing newly formed local parish groups.

The constituency of Justice and Peace is over a thousand people out of an active Catholic population in Scotland of about 225,000.

Each of Scotland's eight dioceses is entitled to send an official representative to the National Commission. Also represented are the religious, missionary and secular clergy; youth and ecumenical representatives; and SCIAF – the Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund, their sister agency.

Labour Party

  • C0013
  • Corporate body
  • 1900 - present

The Labour Party emerged in 1900 as a parliamentary pressure group. They established the National Health Service and created and maintained the empowering welfare state. Equally important has been the development of Labour as a mass membership party in the 1920s and 1930s, the modernisation of our campaigning techniques in the 1980s and the election of 101 Labour women MPs in 1997.

Liason Committee of the Anti-Apartheid Movements of the European Community

  • C0079
  • Corporate body
  • 1972-1995

The Liaison Group of Anti-Apartheid Movements in the European Community was formed in 1988 to lobby the European Parliament and Council of Ministers. In April 1995 it reformed as the European Network for Information and Action on Southern Africa to promote partnership between South Africa and the European Union.

Militant

  • C0114
  • Corporate body
  • 1964-1997

Militant, commonly called the Militant tendency, was a Trotskyist entryist group in the British Labour Party, based around the Militant newspaper launched in 1964. According to Michael Crick, its politics were influenced by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, and Leon Trotsky and "virtually nobody else".

In 1975, there was widespread press coverage of a Labour Party report into the entryist tactics of Militant. Between 1975 and 1980, attempts by Reg Underhill and others in the leadership of the Labour Party to expel Militant were rejected by its National Executive Committee, which appointed a Militant member to the position of National Youth Organiser in 1976 after Militant had won control of the party's youth section, the Labour Party Young Socialists.

In 1982, after the Liverpool Labour Party adopted Militant's strategy to set an illegal deficit budget, a Labour Party commission found Militant in contravention of clause II, section 3 of the party's constitution which made political groups with their own "Programme, Principles and Policy for separate and distinctive propaganda" ineligible for affiliation. Militant was proscribed by the Labour Party's National Executive Committee in December 1982, and the following year five members of the Editorial Board of the Militant newspaper were expelled from the Labour Party. At this point, the group claimed to have 4,300 members. Further expulsions of Militant activists followed. Militant policies dominated Liverpool City Council between 1983 and 1987 and the council organised mass opposition to government cuts to the rate support grant. 47 councillors were banned and surcharged. The conduct of the Liverpool council led Neil Kinnock, Labour's then leader, to denounce Militant at the 1985 Party Conference. Eventually Militant's two remaining Labour MPs were prevented from being Labour candidates at the 1992 general election.

Between 1989 and 1991, Militant led the All-Britain Anti-Poll Tax Federation's non-payment campaign against the Community Charge ("poll tax"). In 1991, Militant decided by a large majority to abandon entryism in the Labour Party. Ted Grant, once the group's most important member, was expelled, and his breakaway minority, now known as Socialist Appeal, continued with the entryist strategy. The majority changed its name to Militant Labour, and then in 1997 to the Socialist Party.

National Party of South Africa

  • C0109
  • Corporate body
  • 1914-2005

National Party (NP), in full National Party of South Africa, Afrikaans Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (1914–39, 1951–98), also called New National Party –(1998–2005), People’s Party or Re-united National Party (1939–51), South African political party, founded in 1914, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994. Its following included most of the Dutch-descended Afrikaners and many English-speaking whites. The National Party was long dedicated to policies of apartheid and white supremacy, but by the early 1990s it had moved toward sharing power with South Africa’s black majority.

J.B.M. Hertzog founded the National Party in 1914 in order to rally Afrikaners against what he considered the Anglicizing policies of the government of Louis Botha and Jan Christian Smuts. In 1924, after mild attempts to relax the colour bar, the Smuts government was defeated by a Nationalist-Labour coalition led by Hertzog, who in two terms sought to further emancipate South Africa from British imperial control and to provide greater “protection” for the whites from the black Africans and for the Afrikaners from the British. From 1933 to 1939 Hertzog and Smuts joined a coalition government and fused their respective followings into the United Party. Some Nationalists, led by Daniel F. Malan, however, held out and kept the National Party alive and, in 1939, reaccepted Hertzog as their leader in a reorganized opposition party known as the Re-united National Party, or People’s Party (Herenigde Nasionale Party, or Volksparty). The new party was weakened by wartime factionalism; and Hertzog and others with Nazi sympathies eventually walked out and formed the Afrikaner Party (1941).

The Re-united National Party returned victoriously in the 1948 elections and subsequently enacted a mass of racial legislation that was designed to preserve white supremacy in South Africa; the National Party named its policy “apartheid.” The party went on to consolidate its power, absorbing the Afrikaner Party in 1951. It renamed itself the National Party of South Africa (1951) and gradually augmented its control of the House of Assembly—from 73 seats in 1948 to 134 seats (81 percent) in 1977. The party was led successively by Daniel F. Malan (1948–54), Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom (1954–58), Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (1958–66), John Vorster (1966–78), P.W. Botha (1978–89), F.W. de Klerk (1989–97), and Marthinus van Schalkwyk (1997–2005). The National Party also broke South Africa away from the Commonwealth, making it a republic in 1961. From the premiership of Vorster on, the National Party attempted what it termed an “enlightened” (verligte) policy on the race question; but this meant hardly more than speeding up the formation of black “homelands” and alleviating—selectively—some of the apartheid policies found inconvenient to general economic and cultural development.

In 1982 much of the party’s right wing broke off in opposition to the granting of limited political rights to Coloureds (those of mixed descent) and Asians (primarily Indians) and formed the Conservative Party. Under de Klerk’s leadership from 1989, the National Party began taking steps away from apartheid and toward a constitutional arrangement that would allow political representation to the country’s black African majority. To this end, many repressive laws were repealed and black anti-apartheid political organizations were legalized. In 1992 a referendum called by de Klerk won a strong endorsement of the party’s reform policy and led to negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC) and other minority parties toward a new constitution. The National Party was defeated in South Africa’s first multiracial elections, held in April 1994, but remained a significant presence in Parliament, winning 82 seats. The party subsequently joined in the government of national unity formed by the ANC; it was awarded six cabinet posts, and de Klerk, along with Thabo Mbeki of the ANC, became deputy president of South Africa.

In June 1996 the National Party left the national unity government—its first time out of government since 1948. The party sought to recast its image by changing its name to the New National Party (NNP) in December 1998. In 1999, however, its support fell, and it won only 28 seats in Parliament. The following year the party formed the Democratic Alliance with the Democratic Party and the Federal Alliance, though the NNP withdrew in 2001. Later that year the party formed a pact with the ANC, its historic foe. After several years of declining popularity, in 2005 the party’s federal council voted to disband the party.

Results 51 to 60 of 128