Showing 261 results

names

CHILDREN 1ST

  • C0001
  • Corporate body
  • 1884-

CHILDREN 1ST was formerly known as the Royal Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (RSSPCC); an organisation dating back to the late 19th century, the age of Victorian Philanthropy and greatly rising social awareness. The catalyst for the Society’s original establishment was the visit of a Glasgow accountant named James Grahame to New York City in 1884, where he witnessed the work of the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. The NYSPCC was founded in 1875 through the case of a young girl named Mary Ellen, who was severely abused by her adoptive mother. A local church worker learned of Mary Ellen’s plight and urged authorities to help the child, only to find that they were legally powerless to intervene. The worker then turned to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, who recognised Mary Ellen as “an animal of human species”, and successfully removed her from her mother. The case highlighted the urgent need for a child protection agency, and thus the NYSPCC was founded.

Inspired by what he saw, Grahame returned to Glasgow and almost immediately set about forming what would become the origins of CHILDREN 1ST. On 23 July, 1884 he convened a public meeting in the Religious Institution Rooms on Buchanan Street, where he discussed the work being done by the NYSPCC and similar societies in London and Liverpool, and convinced the audience of a dire need for a similar society in Glasgow; thus, the Glasgow Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was born. In 1889 the organisation amalgamated with the Edinburgh and Leith Children’s Aid and Refuge Society to form the Scottish National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (SNSPCC).

Initially the Society operated primarily in Glasgow and Edinburgh, but in the 1890’s additional branches began to open throughout Scotland. It was highly pro-active in its approach to child protection, and employed Inspectors who investigated instances of child neglect or abuse and took immediate action. These often involved removing children to a “place of safety”; the Society operated several shelters which provided temporary refuge to children who required urgent care, and upon arrival they were immediately bathed, clothed and fed (in areas not served by a Society shelter, children were sent to a similar institutions). Meanwhile the Inspector interviewed the child’s guardians, and if the case was not deemed too serious, the guardians received a warning and the children were returned, while the family remained under the supervision of the Inspector. In more serious instances the Society referred cases to the legal authorities, and prosecutions for neglect, exposure, violence, etc. occurred. Securing prosecutions was made easier in 1889 when the first Act of Parliament to protect children, known as the “Children’s Charter”, was passed; the Society itself played an important lobbying role in the establishment of this Act and subsequent children’s legislation. Despite taking legal action when necessary, the Society strived to keep the responsibility of childcare with guardians, in order to keep families together. The Society’s Inspectors worked directly with guardians in the home to ensure that children were properly cared for, providing vital support and guidance. Only in severe and irrevocable circumstances were children permanently removed from the home, and placed in industrial schools or other situations.

The Society went through a number of name changes in its earlier years. In 1895 it affiliated with its English equivalent, and became officially known as the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children Scottish Branch. However, the relationship was short lived due to a disagreement over the distribution of legacy funds, and in 1907 the Society reverted back to the title of Scottish National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. In 1922 the Society was granted a Royal Charter, and thus became the Royal Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

As a voluntary organisation, from the start, funding was a major concern for the Society. The first Ladies’ Committee was immediately established in 1884; this group of women volunteers collected donations directly from the public, and further committees were later created with the opening of additional branches throughout Scotland. Legacies also provided a substantial source of income.

1893 saw the formation of the Scottish Children’s League of Pity, the junior branch of the Society. The primary aim of the League was to interest Scotland’s more privileged children in the needs of their less fortunate peers and get them involved in the Society, while generally promoting the Society’s cause and raising additional funds. Members of the League’s numerous circles throughout Scotland secured donations of clothing, bedding, and food for the shelters; held bazaars, pageants, plays and balls to raise vital funds; and became directly involved in the Society’s work, visiting children in the shelters, finding employment situations for older girls, and providing other services. The League’s magazine titled City Sparrows could be purchased from booksellers, and discussed the work of the League and the Society.

The onset of the First World War brought difficult times for the Society. It lost a substantial number of Inspectors to military service (as well as the General Secretary), while at the same time need for the Society’s services grew. Soldiers’ wives struggled to cope with sole responsibility for the home and children while their husbands were away; of course, many never returned and such problems persisted after the war. The subsequent economic depression intensified existing social problems, and generated some financial difficulty for the Society. The Second World War once again saw the Society operating with reduced manpower and increased demand. Despite limitations, the Society continued to develop during these tumultuous years, expanding its lobbying and advocacy efforts while maintaining direct services. Work of the Society contributed to the passing of the Children and Young Persons Act in 1933, which established juvenile courts and tightened youth employment regulations. The Society sharpened its focus on preventive work, taking assertive and comprehensive measures to ensure the well-being of children. Alongside the development of the Welfare State, the Society increasingly collaborated with other bodies, including local authorities, medical health services, national welfare services, the courts, schools, and the police. The Society further strengthened its relationship with local authorities upon the passing of the Children’s Act, 1948, which established a children's department and a children's officer in each local authority.

In 1955 the Society first added Women Visitors to its services. The role of the Women Visitor was to enhance and continue the preventive work of the Inspector by providing practical training and guidance in household management, including budgeting, hygiene, childcare, cooking, and decoration. These women ensured that families received intensive support, and their services came to be well known and highly valued.

Local authorities continued to receive growing responsibility for child welfare throughout the 1960’s, compelling the Society to assess its role. The 1963 Children and Young Persons Act extended the power of local authorities to intervene with family situations; the Society responded by even closer collaboration with local authorities, providing consultations and placing Inspectors on case committees. The Social Work Scotland Act 1968 then ushered in a new social welfare era by establishing social work departments within local authorities, and introduced the Children’s Panel system. The Society continually adapted to keep in tune with these statutory bodies and ensure that services did not overlap; for example, in Glasgow the regional spheres of the Society’s branches were adjusted to fit with the local authority structure. The Society also responded to social work’s continued professionalisation by sending Inspectors and Women Visitors on Social Work Services Group courses.

While the Society continued to provide its core investigative and intervention work throughout the 1970’s and into the 1980’s, when social work departments were still establishing services, it greatly expanded its remit during this time. Innovative ventures included the New Settlement project, started in 1972 to give children the experience of developing a new community. Research became a significant focus with the opening of the Overnewton Centre in Glasgow in 1978. Until its closure in 1991, the Centre researched and developed standards of social work practice, first focusing on physical abuse and later adding sexual abuse.

By the 1990’s inspectorial services had been gradually phased out and the Society no longer operated residential shelters. Branch offices throughout Scotland which had served a base for Inspectors were replaced with Family Resource Centres run by professional social workers. No longer involved in the direct investigation of child abuse incidents, the Society instead provided extended childcare, prevention and protection services designed to meet the current and emerging needs of vulnerable families and children, including individual and family counselling, parenting skills groups, and post investigative assessments. In 1995 the Society adopted the name of CHILDREN 1ST to reflect the change in its role.

In the 21st century the organisation operates a wide range of children and family support services throughout Scotland. It also continues its active campaigning efforts through its Public Policy section. CHILDREN 1ST is mainly funded through corporate, trust and foundation gifts, as well as legacies.
In September 2005 CHILDREN 1st launched the first television campaign in the organisation’s history, aimed at making as many people as possible aware of its work and how they can help children in need. The campaign’s emblem was a young girl named Mairi - a reference to the story of Mary Ellen in New York and the organisation’s foundation – reflecting on more than a century of history.

Royal Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children | Scottish Children's League of Pity

  • C0002
  • Corporate body
  • 1893 (formation)

“ A little child should be the purest of God’s creatures, as it is the greatest of His gifts. And it is the aim of the League of Pity that one day, throughout our whole great Empire, the rights of the children shall be recognised, and that the State shall see that parents provide their children with the necessaries of life in their own homes, and give them such training there as will fit them for their duties as citizens. Perhaps a Utopian idea, but one to work for, and, though we shall not see the accomplishment of our ideals during our lifetime, it is for us to sow, and others to reap.” Clementine Waring (President)
Scottish Children’s League of Pity, Annual Report 1906, p16

March 1893 saw the formation of The Scottish Children’s League of Pity, the junior branch of the Royal Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. It was founded by the Marchioness of Tweedale and headed by her daughter Lady Clementine Hay. The primary aim of the League was to interest Scotland’s more privileged children in the needs of their less fortunate peers and get them involved in the Society, while generally promoting the Society’s cause and raising additional funds. Members of the League’s numerous circles throughout Scotland secured donations of clothing, bedding, and food for the shelters; held bazaars, pageants, plays and balls to raise vital funds; and became directly involved in the Society’s work, visiting children in the services. The League’s monthly magazine titled City Sparrows could be purchased from booksellers, and discussed the work of the League and the Society. The Associates Branch of the League was founded in June 1898.

The headquarters of the League was the central office of the Scottish National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and subsequent head offices under successor titles.

The objects of the League were:-
To interest the children of Scotland in the movement for the prevention of cruelty to children
To provide a means by which children may take a definite part in the furtherance of the work of the Society

In time the League adopted the motto “Be ye kind to one another” and a member’s pledge, “I undertake, as a Member of the Scottish Children’s League, to do all I can to promote the objects of the League, and to help suffering children and make them happy.” The annual flag day of the League was called "Heather Day" and was started in 1912.

The League consisted of Members and Associates resident in, or connected with Scotland and was divided into two branches. One was the Children’s Branch (becoming the Member’s Branch) consisting of junior members – children up to the age of 14 – and senior members – boys and girls between the ages of 14 and 18. Both paid an entrance fee of not less than sixpence and an annual subscription set by each circle. The Associates Branch consisted of those over 18 years of age who paid an entrance fee of not less that one shilling. The object of the Associates Branch was to retain the co-operation of members who had outgrown the age limit of the Children’s Branch and to promote the objects and work of the Society. In time the Members were asked to provide one or two old garments and the Associates two new or four old garments annually. All monies, including legacies, received by the League was paid to the Society; credit being given to the depositing or sanctioned branch. The Society paid all agreed and authorised necessary expenditure incurred in the League’s work. The League presented an annual report with a certified statement of accounts attached.

The Members and Associates of the League were divided into circles allowing them to easily meet together and maintain a common interest and plan of work. Each circle had a secretary and was responsible for deciding how they would carry out the objects of the League on the lines laid down in the constitution and rules. Circles existed throughout Scotland and by 1953 there were over 100 of them. In time the circles were disbanded mainly because changing decades saw children with more commitments and in some instances friend's groups, mostly run by adults, were set up.

The office bearers of the League were President of the League, Honorary President of the Associates Branch, Honorary Presidents and Vice Presidents of County or District Branches, (and of Districts where there are no Branches), Circle Secretaries, a Secretary and Treasurer, and members of the League Committee. There was an Annual Meeting of the office bearers to appoint various positions. The League Committee could group office bearers together to form a County of District Branch.

From the 1911 constitution it is reported that the affairs of the League were managed by a committee of eleven members, of which the President of the League and the Honorary President of the Associates Branch were ex officio members. Six of the committee members were appointed annually by the office-bearers of the League and the other three were appointed annually by the Council. The League Committee had the power to appoint two representatives on each District Committee.

In the late 1950's the phrase "of Pity" was dropped from the title as it was felt it did not properly reflect the active work that was being done by the RSSPCC and the League. As the Scottish Children's League the aims and objectives remained the same and in time the Society employed Schools Co-ordinators who organised fundraising events and raised awareness in primary schools. Lady Clementine Waring remained President of the League into her eighties and then handed it over to HRH The Princess Margaret.

Scottish Trades Union Congress

  • C0004
  • Corporate body
  • 1897-

The Scottish Trades Union Congress (STUC) is a completely independent and autonomous trade union centre for Scotland. It is not a Scottish regional organisation of the TUC. It was established in 1897 largely as a result of a political dispute with the Trades Union Congress (TUC) of Great Britain regarding political representation for the Labour movement. A number of meetings were held by the various Scottish trades councils to discuss the situation, resulting in the formation of the STUC in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 1897. From the outset, the STUC was not in competition with the TUC, nor was it a political movement, but sought to ensure that "in any scheme for the government of Scotland provision should be made for the same industrial legislation being applied throughout Great Britain." Close contact was retained with the TUC with reciprocal arrangements existing for mutual assistance and co-operation when the occasion warranted.

The STUC originally had a rented office at 58 Renfield Street, Glasgow, Scotland, in a building belonging to the Scottish Council for Women's Trade. Between 1900 and 1949 they had offices in various locations in Glasgow city centre and the Govanhill area of Glasgow before moving to Woodlands Terrace in the west end of the city in 1949. In 1998, the offices moved to Woodlands Road.

The Annual Congress is the Governing Body of the STUC. From the earliest days, the Congress concerned itself with a wide range of economic and social questions, lobbying British Members of Parliament, and from 1999 the Scottish Parliament and executive, on major issues. Hours and conditions of work and the battles around these issues were always a central preoccupation of the Congress, but it also concerned itself with wider issues such as housing, education, transport, peace, racism, social and economic issues, and international affairs as well as promoting and supporting joint trades union councils (later re-named trade union councils). Internationally it has historically supported aid for the Spanish Civil War, the Anti-Apartheid Movement, the peace activities against the Vietnam War and the Chilean people's plight after Allende was overthrow in 1973 (to name but a few areas of international solidarity).

The struggle for independent working class political representation was one of the concerns on which the Congress was founded and in 1900, the Congress was instrumental in establishing the Scottish Workers' Parliamentary Election Committee, a forerunner of the Scottish Council of the Labour Party, which would nominate and support candidates for Parliamentary elections. The Congress was also involved with the Scottish Workers' Representation Committee which continued to function until 1909 when its duties were taken over by the national Labour Party. A Scottish Council of the Labour Party was formed in 1915. Despite this involvement in the process which established the Labour Party, the STUC is not, and has never been, affiliated to any political party.

The STUC has always had active women members. In 1897 a female delegate, Miss M H Irwin, obtained the highest vote in the election of the first Parliamentary Committee (later re-named the General Council), the governing body of the Congress. She was nominated for chairman but declined nomination on the grounds that to appoint a woman chairman at that time was too premature. However, she acted as the Parliamentary Secretary and was also Secretary of the Scottish Council for Women's Trade. The first female President, Miss Bell Jobson, presided at the 1937 Congress. In 1926, the Organisation of Women Committee (later the Women's Advisory Committee, now the Women’s Committee) was established by the Congress, specialising in issues relating particularly to women.

In 1937 the Congress agreed a motion to establish youth fellowships as a way of attracting young people to join the unions, and therefore encourage union membership regardless of sex or age. It was realised that to create separate youth fellowships was restrictive, suggesting that the old and young should work separately. Therefore, in 1938, it was decided to establish the Trade Union Youth Advisory Committee (now called the Youth Committee) encouraging youth sections within the existing unions. The Committee is elected by an annual conference of young trade unionists dealing with youth related issues, and elects a delegation to the Annual Congress which submits 3 motions and amendments like other affiliates. It also organises day and weekend schools and other activities for young trade unionists.

From the 1930s onwards, probably the most important concern of the Congress has been the Scottish economy. The STUC has played its part in the legend of Red Clydeside 1910-1922; the period of militancy and protest by the working people of Glasgow and elsewhere. It has played a role in many historic struggles of the Scottish people including the General Strike of 1926, the post-war reconstruction of Scottish industry, and more recent events like the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders work-in of 1971-1972, the 1984-1985 miners strike and the defeat of the poll tax in the early 1990s. The Congress was instrumental in bringing the motor industry to Bathgate and Linwood, Scotland, in the 1960s and the STUC played a central role for many decades in the campaign which established the Scottish Parliament.

By 1947 the STUC consisted of 83 affiliated trades unions with a membership of 671,630. In addition 51 trades councils were affiliated. Membership was made up of members of the Scottish unions and Scottish members of unions covering the British Isles. The period 1977 to 1980 saw membership of the STUC peak to over one million with 80 affiliated unions and 45 trades union counils. A gradual decline of membership then occurred.

The focal point of the STUC is its Annual Congress held in April and attended by delegates from affiliated organisations. It is the Annual Congress which sets down the policy of the STUC and which elects the General Council (known as the Parliamentary Committee until 1923). Between Congresses, it is the General Council which implements policy. The affiliates are divided into seven sections: transport, mining and distribution; steel, engineering and electrical; manufacturing; municipal, general and building; financial, scientific and technical services; civil and public services; education and cultural services; and trades union councils. Each of these sections is represented on the General Council (with a number of places in each section reserved for representatives of women workers), approximately on the basis of its proportion of the total STUC membership. There are also 2 places on the General Council for representatives of black workers, and 2 places for representatives of young (under the age of 26) workers. Whilst the General Council is elected by the whole of Congress, candidates are restricted to standing for election to the section to which their organisation belongs.

In 2013 the STUC has its main office in Woodlands Road, Glasgow and an additional office, close to the Scottish Parliament, in Edinburgh. In 2013 it states its purpose is to co-ordinate, develop and articulate the views and policies of the trade union movement in Scotland and, through the creation of real social partnership, to promote: trade unionism; equality and social justice; the creation and maintenance of high quality jobs; and the public sector delivery of services. The STUC represents over 630,000 trade unionists, the members of 37 affiliated trade unions and 22 Trades Union Councils.

Anti-Apartheid Movement | Scottish Committee

  • C0005
  • Corporate body
  • 1976-1994

On 26 June 1959 a group of South Africans and their British supporters held a public meeting in Holborn Hall, Theobalds Road, London, to call for a boycott of fruit, cigarettes and other goods imported from South Africa. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Committee of African Organisations (CAO). The main speaker was Julius Nyerere, then President of the Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU), joined by Kanyama Chiume of the banned Nyadaland African National Congress, Tennyson Makiwane and Vella Pillay from South Africa’s African and Indian Congresses, Michael Scott and Trevor Huddleston. None of the speakers had a base in British politics. The choice of date for the meeting was 26 June, South Africa Freedom Day, and the choice of tactic, like the date, had wholly South African origins. On 29 December 1959 the Committee met for the first time under its new name the Boycott Movement Committee. This Committee cast its net wide and letters for support were sent to trade unions, co-ops, womens' organisations, constituency labour parties, local liberal parties, conservative associations and churches and religious organisations. The Boycott Movement became the Anti Apartheid Movement after the Sharpville massacre of 21 March 1960 and this movement not only fought for an end to apartheid in South Africa, but re-orientated its strategy to counter the evolving "unholy alliance" against African freedom in Southern Africa.

As far as the Anti Apartheid Movement in Scotland is concerned, branches supporting the organisation existed in Glasgow and Edinburgh through the 1960’s, however the mid 1970’s saw the establishment of a Scottish Committee. The Committee was formally established in 1976 as the Scottish Committee of the Anti Apartheid Movement and the minutes begin from 8 May 1976. It had a certain degree of autonomy within the UK structure. Brian Filling remained in the Chair and John Nelson remained Secretary of this Scottish Committee for its complete existence and went on to hold the same positions in Action for Southern Africa, ACTSA, Scotland. After the elections on 27 April 1994 and the victory of the ANC and Nelson Mandela, apartheid came to an end. The last Annual General Meeting of the Scottish Committee took place on 3 December 1994 when it was dissolved and its assets transferred to the Scottish Committee of Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

The first two minuted meetings of the Scottish Committee took place at Dundee University, Dundee and thereafter meetings on the whole alternated between venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh. The first office of the Scottish Committee at 266 Clyde Street, Glasgow was formally opened on 22 August 1987. The lease for these premises ran out in the summer of 1989 and alternative premises were found at 52 St Enoch Square, Glasgow. In 1992 premises were purchased in this building and these premises are still used by ACTSA (Scotland). Prior to having a central office, the Secretary’s home address was used for business purposes.

The aims and objectives of the Anti Apartheid Movement included informing the people of Britain and elsewhere about apartheid and what it meant to the people of Southern Africa. It also campaigned for international action to help bring the system of apartheid to an end and to co-operate with and support Southern African organisations campaigning against apartheid. The object of the Scottish Committee was to further the work of the Anti Apartheid Movement, especially in Scotland. This was done through promoting the exchange of information and ideas between anti apartheid groups, through co-ordinating the activities of such groups and where appropriate, through undertaking activities on its own account.

The Scottish Committee was responsible for the recognition of local anti apartheid groups in Scotland and therefore for their admission into membership of the Anti Apartheid Movement. Activities in Scotland covered a number of specific areas which were the focus of international campaigning. These included sports, culture, retail and academic boycotts, campaigns against nuclear and military collaboration, loans to South Africa and for oil sanctions. Scotland was also very active in the international campaigns for the release of Nelson Mandela over his 27 years in captivity. The Movement’s work was not limited to South Africa. It was one of the first organisations to highlight the "unholy alliance" between apartheid South Africa, the racist regime in Rhodesia, and Portuguese colonial rule in Africa. It was actively involved in promoting independence for the former Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique, as well as for Zimbabwe and Namibia and the Scottish Committee and its local groups played their part. The Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action Against Apartheid was established on 21 March 1985 and the Scottish Women’s Sub Committee was launched on 16 June 1987. The position of Youth Officer was created at the Scottish Committee annual general meeting in August 1987, and the Union Sub Committee was formally established in December of the same year. Supporters in Scotland also included church and religious groups and the student population. In local communities it was local anti apartheid groups who carried out the work of the Movement, and while these changed over the years, local areas of activity included Aberdeen, Ayr, Central Region, Clydebank, Cumbernauld, Cunninghame, Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dundee and Tayside, East Kilbride, Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fraserburgh, Fife, Glasgow East, Glasgow North West, Glasgow South, Hamilton, Inverness, Midlothian, Paisley/Renfrew and West Lothian.

The National Committee of the Anti Apartheid Movement, on which the Scottish Committee was represented, was responsible for the interpretation, implementation and development of policy between annual general meetings, and it met a minimum of three times per year. The Executive Committee, which also included one representative from the Scottish Committee, carried on the day to day work of the Movement and normally met monthly. The Scottish Committee was an integral part of the Movement. It was made up of two delegates from each recognised local anti apartheid group in Scotland, one delegate from each student and other anti apartheid groups in Scotland recognised by the Scottish Committee, and one delegate from each of a maximum of ten affiliated Scottish-level organisations. Office bearers were elected at the Scottish annual general meeting and these were chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, treasurer and other functional officers as found necessary. The Scottish Committee met monthly.

Some key events relating to Scotland are listed below. On the 4 August 1981, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, was granted the Freedom of the City of Glasgow. On 16 June 1986 St George’s Place, Glasgow was renamed Nelson Mandela Place, Glasgow. On 12 June 1987 the freedom marchers began their march as part of the Nelson Mandela Freedom at 70 Campaign. This was the most ambitious campaign in the Anti Apartheid Movement’s history to date and it set off from Glasgow. In 1990 the Scottish Committee organised SECHABA Festival and International Conference in Glasgow and on the 9 October 1993 Nelson Mandela visited the city of Glasgow where he was give the freedom of 9 British cities; Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Midlothian, Hull, Sheffield, Greenwich, Islwyn and Newcastle.

Association of Directors of Social Work

  • C0006
  • Corporate body
  • 1969-

The Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968 was implemented from 17 November 1969 and has been quoted as the most important landmark in Scottish social work history. The Act brought together into a comprehensive service existing provisions for children, elderly, physically and mentally handicapped persons and offenders, which had been previously exercised through the Children, Welfare, Health and Probation Committees. The Act created social work departments and established social work as a professional service within local government.

It was at a Scottish Office sponsored seminar in Peebles Hydro, on 14 October 1969, that the Association of Directors of Social Work (ADSW) was constituted. The first office bearers were Douglas Grant as President, Bob Winter as Secretary, Harry Mapstone as Vice President and Jim Gregory as Treasurer. There were 42 Directors of Social Work present at this meeting. Membership of the Association was open to all Directors of Social Work appointed by local authorities under the Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968. The structure of social work has changed over the years in accordance with local government reorganisation. The objects of the Association are the promotion of social welfare and the promotion of the interests of service users.

In 1998 the ADSW was restructured in line with the changes in local government. Its committee structure was developed to reflect the range of concerns and pressures in providing social work services in the 1990s. A Directors Group was established and the Standing Committee structure was streamlined into 5 committees – Children and Familiy Care, Community Care, Criminal Justice Services, Standards, Training and Research and Finance.

The ADSW works closely with the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA) in lobbying government for funding and in developing and responding to new legislation. ADSW was a statutory consultee of the Social Work Services Group (SWSG) in the Scottish Office and continues working with the Scottish Executive's Social Work Services Inspectorate. From time to time sub groups and working groups are established to deal with specific issues.

Glasgow Polytechnic

  • C0007
  • Corporate body
  • 1971-1993

Glasgow College of Technology was established in 1971, as a result of the merger of two proposed colleges of higher education, the College of Science and Technology and the College of Commerce (these proposed colleges were merged before the buildings were completed and the doors opened). In 1987 the Board of Governors agreed to change the name of the College to Glasgow College, mainly for advertising purposes, although for legal purposes the name remained Glasgow College of Technology. Several attempts were made to designate the College a polytechnic. It was proposed in 1971 and 1979 but it was not until 1 January 1991 that it became Glasgow Polytechnic. The new Polytechnic was officially launched on 1 May 1991. Following the Government’s White Paper ‘Higher Education: A New Framework’ in May 1991 the new institution saw their opportunity to become a University and to award their own degrees. Discussions were entered into with The Queen’s College, Glasgow with regards to a merger and the intention to merge was announced on 4 December 1991. In June 1992 Glasgow Polytechnic was granted full degree awarding powers and on 1 April 1993 it finally merged with The Queen’s College, Glasgow to form Glasgow Caledonian University. The institution’s premises were located on Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow in a purpose built complex, which at time of merger formed the main campus of Glasgow Caledonian University.

The original aim of the institution was to develop a higher level of academic training and to offer degrees validated by the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA).

When Glasgow College of Technology opened in 1971, its syllabus was mainly made up of higher level transferred courses. Stow College of Engineering and The Central College of Commerce and Distribution were the two main institutions responsible for transferring teaching, and staff to these courses. Initially there were 12 departments at the new College, the flagship being the Optics Department. Others included Electrical Engineering, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Biology, Computing, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, Law and Public Administration, Commerce, Management and Finance, Social Sciences and Humanities.

The first CNAA degree to be offered was in optics. Other courses on offer were diplomas and certificates validated by the Scottish Technical Education Council (SCOTEC) or the Scottish Business Education Council (SBEC). The Social Sciences and Humanities Departments both provided teaching towards London University degrees. The second CNAA degree was introduced in 1973, a BA in Social Sciences, and this was followed, in 1977, by a degree in nursing. A Department of Nursing Studies was established in 1980 and there was a clear commitment to development in this area.

In 1981 three faculties were established, Business and Administration Studies, Life and Social Sciences and Science and Engineering. This decade also saw a move to improve the standard of engineering education. By the early 1980s there was a CNAA validated BSc in Engineering and soon approval was given for a Bachelor of Engineering. The development of offering joint courses with neighbouring further education establishments also continued. In 1985 the full time courses on offer included 14 degrees, 12 higher diplomas and higher national diplomas. There were 7 other diplomas and professional courses such as those in nursing, over 50 part time courses, 2 of which were degrees - BSc in Mechanical Engineering and the BA in Social Sciences.

For session 1991/92 its student enrolment was 5,900 (FTE) and it was Scotland's second largest central institution. It was fully accredited for taught courses by the CNAA, offered SCOTVEC qualifications, and was committed to the principles of wider access and credit accumulation and transfer (CAT scheme). In June 1992 Glasgow Polytechnic was granted full degree awarding powers.

The College was established by Glasgow Corporation, which was its ultimate owner but did not play a direct role in its government. Although not a Scottish central institution until 1985, the Scottish Education Department (SED) had a much more direct bearing on the College’s academic life. The College's statutes corresponded fairly closely to the SED’s 1972 guidelines for the government of central institutions. The Board of Governors (Governing Council), in which originally the local authority was the predominant element, was responsible for the allocation of resources and staffing and the Academic Board dealt with the academic planning, implementation of quality control and academic affairs. In 1975 control of the College was transferred from Glasgow Corporation to the newly formed Strathclyde Regional Council. At this time the Governing Council became the College Council. In 1985 the College became a Scottish central institution and the College Council became the Governing Body. Although the composition and membership changed, the Governing Body and Academic Board remained in place until the merger with The Queen’s College, Glasgow.

The Directors/Principals of the College between 1971 and 1993 were Dr Reginald Beale 1971-1982; Dr Norman Meadows 1982-1988; and Dr J. S. Mason (Stan Mason) 1988-1993.

Queen's College, Glasgow

  • C0008
  • Corporate body
  • 1908-1993

The Queen's College, Glasgow had its origins in The Glasgow and West of Scotland College of Domestic Science (Incorporated). This institution, affectionately known as the Dough School, had been established in 1908 as the result of an amalgamation of the Glasgow School of Cookery and the West End School of Cookery and was recognised as a Scottish Central Institution in July 1909. In March 1975, its centenary year, the College received the Royal accolade and was renamed The Queen's College, Glasgow, (Queen Elizabeth II had been its patron since 1944). On 1 April 1993 Glasgow Polytechnic and the Queen's College, Glasgow amalgamated to form Glasgow Caledonian University.

The first offices of the College were at 86 Bath Street, Glasgow. In 1909 an appeal was launched to fund the construction of a new building. A site in Park Drive, facing West End Park, Glasgow (now Kelvingrove Park) was chosen and building began in 1913. When the building was nearing completion the Red Cross requested use of the building as a hospital for the duration of the war. The Governors consented and the Woodside Red Cross Hospital subsequently opened. In 1919 the Red Cross handed the Park Drive building back to the College. Between 1923 and 1934 the College's premises were extended by the acquisition of the 3 dwelling houses adjacent to the Park Drive building. In the 1970s the Park Drive campus was further extended and in September 1975 a new building was completed and opened.

The purpose of the College was to provide training for teachers of domestic science for schools and to provide instruction to the general public (and domestic servants). The latter were allowed to study for diplomas in single subjects such as needlework or cookery, but from 1910 diplomas were only awarded for complete courses.

During the First World War advice and training was provided for the military and civil authorities in the area of catering. Public demonstrations where given to help people to cook on rations and to give advice on how to cope generally with food shortages. From 1919 the College provided Ministry of Labour training courses for former war workers in cookery, laundry and housework and for war widows in dressmaking. The College also acted as a central training place for unemployed girls under the schemes of the Central Committee for Women’s Training and Employment.

In 1925-26 a course began for sister tutors and dieticians, aimed mainly at trained nurses and intending dieticians. The course included the subjects of physiology, hygiene, biology and bacteriology along with cookery, laundry and some book keeping. Courses in this field developed into certificates and diplomas and eventually to postgraduate diplomas and certificates in dietetics. From the 1920s the College purchased electrical equipment and classes in electrical housecraft and electrical repair were introduced. Students studying for certain College diplomas had to follow a course covering the work of the Electrical Association of Women (EAW) certificate examinations.

During the Second World War the College undertook similar advisory and training functions as it had done during the previous war. Mary Andross (1895-1968), Head of the Science Department, excelled in the development of vitamin C and with fruit and vegetable preservation. A Canteen in St Enoch Station, Glasgow was built and equipped by subscriptions raised by the staff and students, and it was also staffed by them.

Post war teaching at the College consisted of three main areas; home economics (the new name for domestic science), dietetics and institutional management. In the 1960s the Scottish Education Department decided that central institutions should concentrate on providing training at a high level and consequently, from the 1967-68 session, the College only offered diploma and post diploma courses. Lower level courses were abandoned or passed on to the new further education colleges. Following the renaming of the College the range of subjects offered widened and this in turn opened the College up to male students. The level of teaching also developed and at the time of its merger with Glasgow Polytechnic in 1993, ten degree courses were on offer.

In 1976 the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) approved the College's first degree course, a BSc in Dietetics, which ran in collaboration with Paisley College of Technology. Over the next few years several medical teaching schools were transferred to the College. In 1982, following the amalgamation of the physiotherapy schools, a BSc in Physiotherapy was introduced. In 1984 the Orthoptics School previously located at the Glasgow Eye Infirmary was transferred to the College. The Radiography School transferred from the Royal Beatson Memorial Hospital in January 1989, offering a diploma and later degrees validated by the College of Radiographers. In 1990 the Glasgow School of Chiropody and the Glasgow School of Occupational therapy joined the College and soon degree courses were established. In 1987 the BSc Dietetics became the BSc in Human Nutrition and Dietetics and was made the sole responsibility of Queen's College, Glasgow. In 1982 the Council for National Academic Awards approved a degree in home economics. In 1985 a BA in Catering and Accommodation Management was established and in 1991 a BA in Hospitality Management was added.

In 1986 the Governors set up a company, QCG Enterprises Limited. The aim of the company was to market the skills and expertise of the College's staff and also education materials and products emerging out of the College's research work.

From July 1909 the College was recognised as a Scottish Central Institution. The original structure of the Governing Body was 21 Governors, elected from the Association, and 6 Governors elected from various leading bodies in Glasgow and the surroundings districts. This membership changed through time. The law firm Hill and Hoggan acted as the College’s Secretary and Treasurer from 1908 until 1972, when Mr Harry Rose took this position over completely. With the Central Institutions (Scotland) Regulations 1974, the structure of the Governors changed and the new Governing Body provided representation from many diverse areas, all of which had an interest or involvement in the College. These new arrangements contained a sharply reduced degree of representation by local councillors and emphasis moved showing an increase in members from the business community and other employers of students. It also included the wider membership of college student representatives, teaching staff and the Senates of Glasgow and Strathclyde Universities. Changes to nominated members occurred again for session 1976-77 to cater for the new local authority restructuring and the establishment of Strathclyde Region. The composition of the Governing Body was again considered in 1989 and 1991. By virtue of The Central Institutions (Scotland) Regulation 1972 an Academic Council was formed in 1973 and apart from senior members of staff, it included six elected rank and file members. It dealt with a range of academic matters.

The Principals of the College over the years were Miss Ella Glaister (1908-1910), Miss Dorothy Melvin (1910-1946), Miss Isobel Gibson (1947-1962), Miss Juliann Calder (1963-1976), Dr Geoffrey Richardson (1976-1991) and Dr John Phillips (1991-1993).

In 1910 Ella Glaister was responsible for the establishment of the "Glasgow Cookery Book", which still remains a popular publication.

Anti Apartheid Movement | Southern Africa: the Imprisoned Society

  • C0010
  • Corporate body
  • 1960-1992

The AAM established a political prisoners sub-committee which operated during the late 1960s and early 1970s and then in 1973 held a major conference called 'Southern Africa: the Imprisoned Society' to highlight the plight of those imprisoned for their political beliefs. The name of this conference, abbreviated to SATIS, was adopted by the sub-committee and became the focus of the AAM's political prisoner work for the next twenty years.

Anti Apartheid Movement |Local Authority Action Against Apartheid

  • C0011
  • Corporate body
  • 1960s-1995

As early as 1960 local authorities in Britain played a part in the international campaign against apartheid. A United Nations resolution in 1982 recognised this and following a conference held in Sheffield in March 1983 the National Steering Committee on Local Authority Action Against Apartheid (LAAA) was established to act in an advisory and co-ordinating capacity. It encouraged local authorities to adopt anti-apartheid policies including sports and cultural boycotts, disinvestment from the South African economy, purchasing policies avoiding South African goods and raising awareness about apartheid through education. In the 1990s councils were encouraged to develop links with communities in South Africa and the LAAAA sent an observer team to the South African elections in 1994.

Anti Apartheid Movement | Scottish Committee | Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action Against Apartheid

  • C0012
  • Corporate body

The Scottish arm of Local Authority Action Against Apartheid (LAAA), which was established to act in an advisory and co-ordinating capacity. It encouraged local authorities to adopt anti-apartheid policies including sports and cultural boycotts, disinvestment from the South African economy, purchasing policies avoiding South African goods and raising awareness about apartheid through education. In the 1990s councils were encouraged to develop links with communities in South Africa and the LAAA sent an observer team to the South African elections in 1994.

Labour Party

  • C0013
  • Corporate body
  • 1900 - present

The Labour Party emerged in 1900 as a parliamentary pressure group. They established the National Health Service and created and maintained the empowering welfare state. Equally important has been the development of Labour as a mass membership party in the 1920s and 1930s, the modernisation of our campaigning techniques in the 1980s and the election of 101 Labour women MPs in 1997.

Scottish National Party

  • C0014
  • Corporate body
  • 1934 - present

The SNP was originally established as a single-issue, minor party. It grew in strength emerging as the government of Scotland in 2007 and realised its vision for an independence referendum in the Autumn of 2014.

Social Democratic Party

  • C0015
  • Corporate body
  • 1981-1988

The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a centrist political party in the United Kingdom.

The SDP was founded on 26 March 1981 by four senior Labour Party moderates, dubbed the 'Gang of Four': Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams, who issued the Limehouse Declaration. Owen and Rodgers were sitting Labour Members of Parliament (MPs); Jenkins had left Parliament in 1977 to serve as President of the European Commission, while Williams had lost her seat in the 1979 general election. The four left the Labour Party as a result of the January 1981 Wembley conference which committed the party to unilateral nuclear disarmament and withdrawal from the European Economic Community. They also believed that Labour had become too left-wing, and had been infiltrated at constituency party level by Trotskyist factions whose views and behaviour they considered to be at odds with the Parliamentary Labour Party and Labour voters.

Anarpeace

  • C0016
  • Corporate body
  • c.1976-1994

An organisation which supported the work of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the Anti-Apartheid Movement It publishing a monthly newsletter and was based in Glasgow.

Socialist Educational Association

  • C0016
  • Corporate body
  • 1959-

The SEA has a long and proud history. It goes back to the formation of the National Association of Labour Teachers in the 1920s and was widened out and renamed the “Socialist Educational Association” in 1959. There membership has included teachers, lecturers and academic researchers, school support staff and administrators, students, Councillors, Governors, parents and others with a general interest in education. They have a fund of expertise and experience on all aspects of education. This has enabled them to participate in national and local discussions about education at all levels and in all forums. They seek to inform and influence the development of education policies by the Labour Party, to which we are affiliated.

Revolutionary Communist Group

  • C0020
  • Corporate body
  • 1974 - present

The RCG is a Marxist-Lennist organisation that exists to defend and develop an anti-imperialist trend within Britain, based on the long-term interests of the entire working class and oppressed internationally. They stand for the creation of a society organised both to meet the needs of the entire population, and to ensure the fullest possible development of every individual.

South African Communist Party

  • C0021
  • Corporate body
  • 1921 - present

The South African Communist Party was founded in 1921 and has always been in the forefront of the struggle against imperialism and racist domination. The SACP is a partner in the Tripartite Alliance consisting of the African National Congress and the Congress of South African Trade Union. The Youth Wing of the SACP is the Young Communist League.

Trades Union Congress

  • C0022
  • Corporate body
  • 1868 - present

The TUC's objectives are to raise the quality of working life and promote equality for all. Their mission is to be a high profile organisation that campaigns successfully for trade union aims and values; assists trade unions to increase membership and effectiveness; cuts out wasteful rivalry; and promotes trade union solidarity. They represent more than 5.8 million workers in 51 unions.

National Union of Students of the United Kingdom

  • C0023
  • Corporate body
  • 1922 - present

Established in 1922 the NUS has worked tirelessly on behalf of students and students’ unions. Their campaigning work has resulted in many positive changes within higher and further education, improving the lives of thousands of students.

Congress of South African Trade Unions

  • C0025
  • Corporate body
  • 1985 - present

The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) was launched in December 1985 after four years of unity talks between unions opposed to apartheid and committed to a non-racial, non-sexist and democratic South Africa. At the launch we represented less than half a million workers organised in 33 unions.

Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund

  • C0027
  • Corporate body
  • 1965 - present

SCIAF is the Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund, the official aid and international development charity of the Catholic Church in Scotland. They work in over 16 countries across Asia, Africa and Latin America, to help some of the poorest people in the world, regardless of religion, to work their way out of poverty.

End Loans to Southern Africa

  • C0028
  • Corporate body
  • 1974-1995

End Loans to Southern Africa (ELTSA) campaigned for the end to apartheid through the imposition of effective financial sanctions. It was established in 1974 by the Reverend David Haslam to campaign initially against loans by Midland Bank, together with other European banks, to the South African government through the European American Banking Corporation. It subsequently broadened its activities to campaign through consumer and shareholder action, parliamentary lobbying and other activities against all foreign, and particularly British, assistance to South Africa and for the implementation of the United Nations General Assembly resolution to end all new investment in and financial loans to South Africa. ELTSA carried out research into British banks and companies, produced information and campaigning documents and pioneered the techniques of pressure group shareholder action. A major element of its banks campaign was the boycott of Barclays Bank. In addition to the banking and disinvestment campaigns ELTSA was involved in the campaign to isolate South African gold through the World Gold Commission and through Embargo it supported the oil embargo of South Africa, with a particular focus during the late 1980s on the boycott of Shell.

In 1994 ELTSA was transformed into the Southern Africa Economic Research Unit (SAERU) to address the economic legacies of apartheid and encourage financial assistance to the region.

Iona Community

  • C0029
  • Corporate body
  • 1938 - present

The Iona Community was founded in Glasgow and Iona in 1938 by George MacLeod, minister, visionary and prophetic witness for peace, in the context of the poverty and despair of the Depression. From a dockland parish in Govan, Glasgow, he took unemployed skilled craftsmen and young trainee clergy to Iona to rebuild both the monastic quarters of the medieval abbey and the common life by working and living together, sharing skills and effort as well as joys and achievement. That original task became a sign of hopeful rebuilding of community in Scotland and beyond. The experience shaped – and continues to shape – the practice and principles of the Iona Community.

Catholic Institute for International Relations

  • C0030
  • Corporate body
  • 1940 - present

CIIR now Progressio are a UK based charity that works internationally. They have been active for over 75 years with Catholic roots and believe that poor and marginalised people can gain the power to transform their lives through a program of skill sharing and advocacy. They work with people of all faiths and none.

World Council on Churches

  • C0031
  • Corporate body
  • 1948 - present

The WCC brings together churches, denominations and church fellowships in more than 110 countries and territories throughout the world, representing over 500 million Christians and including most of the world's Orthodox churches, scores of Anglican, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist and Reformed churches, as well as many United and Independent churches. While the bulk of the WCC's founding churches were European and North American, today most member churches are in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, the Middle East and the Pacific. There are now 348 member churches.

For its member churches, the WCC is a unique space: one in which they can reflect, speak, act, worship and work together, challenge and support each other, share and debate with each other.

Ecumenical Press Service

  • C0032
  • Corporate body
  • Established 1947

Published weekly under auspices: World Council of Churches; World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations; World Young Women's Christian Association; World Student Christian Federation; World Council of Christian Education.

The aim of the EPS was to keep its readers informed of trends of thought and opinion in and about the churches and Christian movements.

Church of Scotland | Church and Nation Committee

  • C0033
  • Corporate body
  • 1919 - present

The Church and Nation Committee had one of the highest profiles in the Church of Scotland. It took a lead in campaigns, such as opposing nuclear weapons and promoting devolution for Scotland.

Ecumenical News Bulletin

  • C0034
  • Corporate body
  • c 1977

The EcuNews Bulletin provided bulletins on national and international church news during the 1970s.

Scottish Church Groups on Southern Africa

  • C0035
  • Corporate body
  • c 1980-1991

The Scottish Churches Group on Southern Africa was an umbrella organisation made up of member from Christian Aid, Church of Scotland, Congregational Union of Scotland, Scottish episcopal Church, Methodist Church, Roman Catholic Church, SCIAF and the Balmore Trust which was set up in response to the plight of South Africans living under the apartheid regime.

Catholic International Cooperation for Development and Solidarity

  • C0037
  • Corporate body
  • 1962 - present

CIDSE was officially registered as a non-profit organisation under Belgian law in 1967. However, Catholic charities had already been meeting since 1964 with the intention of creating an ‘international working group for socio-economic development’. CIDSE was founded to coordinate tasks identified by the Second Vatican Council as important tasks for the Catholic Church, namely, to care for the poor and the oppressed and to work for more justice on a global level.

British Council on Churches

  • C0038
  • Corporate body
  • 1942 - present

The BCC is the counterpart in the UK of the World Council of Churches, combining in a single organisation the chief agencies of the interdenominational co-operation.

Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust

  • C0039
  • Corporate body
  • 1965-1996

The South Africa Racial Amity Trust was an educational charity formed in 1965 to promote knowledge of the theory and practice of apartheid in South Africa through research and publication, particularly on the plight of children. It was renamed the Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust (BART) in honour of its treasurer, the former bishop of Johannesburg, following his death in 1980. BART was dissolved in 1996.

Christian Aid

  • C0040
  • Corporate body
  • 1941 - present

Christian Aid is the relief and development agency of over 41 British and Irish churches. Formed after WWII the charity aim to fight poverty, strengthen the poor and turn hope into action.

Christian Concern for Southern Africa

  • C0041
  • Corporate body
  • 1972-1993

Christian Concern for Southern Africa (CCSA) was founded in 1972 as an interdenominational Christian body concerned with raising awareness of the political situation in South Africa and to co-ordinate the response of British Churches. It was based initially at 41 Holland Park, London, then at the premises of the Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR) near Regent's Park, then at 2 Eaton Gate, London, the headquarters of the British Council of Churches, and finally in Camberwell Road, South London.

Its policy and decision making council was the Executive Committee made up of representatives from various religious and social organizations. In 1981 the Rev. R. Elliott Kendall was appointed first as Secretary and then as Executive Secretary until his retirement, just before his death in 1992. CCSA had links with all the main British Christian churches, relying predominantly on them for financial support although charitable organizations also gave assistance. CCSA's main work concentrated on gathering information about British companies with interests in South Africa. This information was then used both to supply to other affiliated organizations and to pressurize the companies themselves into taking a more ethical stance on their treatment of black and coloured employees in South Africa. In particular, the involvement of oil companies was targeted leading to the establishment of the Oil Working Group in 1979. CCSA's other activities included the publishing of educational literature; the collection of literature from similar groups; correspondence with political groups and a mass lobby of Parliament; organizing conferences and establishing and maintaining links with South African groups.

The activities of the CCSA ceased in 1993 when the political situation in South Africa was believed to be improving significantly.

Centrepeace

  • C0042
  • Corporate body
  • Established 1983

Centrepeace was a trading company owned by the charities: The Iona Community, Christian Aid and the Balmore Trust.

University of Edinburgh

  • C0043
  • Corporate body
  • 1582 - present

The university was established by a Royal Charter granted by James VI in 1582.

For more than 400 years the university has played host to scientists, philosophers and politicians who have shaped the modern world.

Fellow graduates signed the United States’ Declaration of Independence, founded Ivy League universities, brought modern medicine to China, post-colonial government to Africa, and wrote some of the world’s most widely read books.

University of Aberdeen

  • C0044
  • Corporate body
  • 1495 - present

The University of Aberdeen is Scotland's third oldest university and the fifth oldest in the UK, founded in 1495. It was the first chair of medicine in the English-speaking world.

There are five Nobel laureates associated with the University of Aberdeen.

University of Glasgow

  • C0045
  • Corporate body
  • 1451 - present

Founded in 1451, the University of Glasgow has dedicated more than 560 years to inspiring great minds, from economist Adam Smith and pioneer of television John Logie Baird, to the writer and producer of Doctor Who and Sherlock, Steven Moffat.

The university has inspired the talents of seven Nobel Laureates, one Prime Minister, Scotland's current First Minister and the country's first female medical graduates.

Glasgow’s beautiful, historical campus features more than 100 listed buildings.

University of Strathclyde

  • C0046
  • Corporate body
  • 1796 - present

Established more than 200 years ago 'for the good of mankind', the University of Strathclyde is renowned for excellent teaching, research and strong links with industry, government and business.

Its roots can be traced back to 1796, when Professor John Anderson’s legacy established a 'place of useful learning' – the only higher education institution to be created in Scotland during the Enlightenment. This tradition remains at the heart of our ethos today, as a leading international technological university.

Heriot-Watt University

  • C0047
  • Corporate body
  • 1821 - present

Originating from the School of Arts of Edinburgh, founded in 1821 as the world's first Mechanics Institute, Heriot-Watt is one of the oldest higher education institutions in the UK. Celebrating our 50th anniversary, we gained university status by Royal Charter in 1966.

Heriot-Watt University has established a reputation for world-class teaching and practical, leading-edge research, which has made us one of the top UK universities for business and industry.

University of St Andrews

  • C0048
  • Corporate body
  • c 1410 - present

Founded in 1413, St Andrews is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest university in the English speaking world. There is no official campus as the university is integrated with town: ancient buildings juxtaposed with state-of-the-art science facilities.

African National Congress

  • C0049
  • Corporate body
  • 1912 - present

The African National Congress (ANC) is South Africa's governing party and has been in power since the transition to democracy in April 1994. The organisation was initially founded as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 in Bloemfontein, with the aim of fighting for the rights of black South Africans.

The organization was renamed the ANC in 1923. While the organization’s early period was characterized by political inertia due to power struggles and lack of resources, increasing repression and the entrenchment of white minority rule galvanized the party. As a result of the establishment of apartheid, its aversion to dissent by Black people and brutal crackdown of political activists, the ANC together with the SACP formed a military wing, uMkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation/ MK) in 1961.

Through MK, the ANC waged the armed struggle and obtained support from some African countries and the Soviet block for its activities. With the increasing internal dissent, international pressure and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the apartheid government was forced to enter into negotiations with the ANC. This saw the collapse of apartheid and the ushering in of democratic rule in 1994.

Aberdeen University Press

  • C0050
  • Corporate body
  • 1900-1996

Aberdeen University Press was first incorporated in 1900 but the printers from which it was formed had been producing books and journals for Aberdeen’s two universities – King’s College and Marischal College – for twenty-five years before their amalgamation in 1865. The Press’s initial reputation was for the production of high quality books requiring specialist skills.
The company existed in this form until it became defunct in 1996 and was then relaunched in 2013.

Pricewaterhouse-Coopers

  • C0051
  • Corporate body
  • 1849 - present

Formed in 1998 from a merger between Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand, PwC has a history in client services that dates back to the nineteenth century. Both accounting firms originated in London during the mid 1800s. Today, PwC serves 26 industries. Their industry-focused services in the fields of assurance, tax, human resources, transactions, performance improvement and crisis management have helped resolve complex client and stakeholder issues worldwide. They also apply their expertise and talents to help educational institutions, the federal government, non-profits and international relief agencies address their unique business issues.

South West Africa People's Organisation

  • C0055
  • Corporate body
  • 1960 - present

The South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) was founded in Windhoek, South West Africa (presently Namibia) on 19 April 1960 by Herman Toivo ja Toivo. The party was originally formed to advocated immediate Namibian independence from South Africa and became the country’s leading party following independence in 1990.

The SWA territory was entrusted by the League of Nations to South Africa under an administrative mandate after the First World War. After the Second World War, South Africa extended its apartheid policies to this territory and became a military occupier. After South Africa refused a United Nations order to withdraw from the trust territory in 1966, SWAPO turned to armed struggle.

SWAPO emerged as the sole liberation movement in the early 1960s because it had the support of the Ovambo, the largest ethnic group in Namibia. More a military organisation than a political one, SWAPO launched military operations against the South African government’s military positions. On 26 August 1966 the first major clash of the conflict took place, when a unit of the South African Police, supported by South African Air Force, exchanged fire with SWAPO forces. This date is generally regarded as the start of what became known in South Africa as the Border War.

Initially SWAPO suffered heavy losses against the South African Army but later SWAPO was backed by the Angolan ruling party, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, the Soviet Union, the Norwegian government and the African National Congress. SWAPO used Angola as a base for guerrilla warfare on Namibian soil; operations were carried out by SWAPO’s guerrilla force, the People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). Beginning in 1978 South Africa made periodic retaliatory land and air strikes into Angola. Herman Toivo ja Toivo, the founder of SWAPO, was imprisoned in South Africa for a 20-year term in 1968 but was released in 1984. Nujoma returned to Namibia in September 1989.

In 1978 the UN recognized SWAPO as the sole representative of the people of Namibia. Both SWAPO and South Africa agreed to a UN plan for a cease-fire, withdrawal of South African troops, and free elections to be guaranteed by UN security forces. After years of diplomatic maneuvering, South Africa finally accepted a UN resolution to that effect in December 1988. Sporadic fighting continued. In 1989 Nujoma was elected president and SWAPO won a majority of the delegates selected by the country’s voters to write a constitution for an independent Namibia. The following year a new constitution was adopted and Nujoma took office and in the same year South Africa completely withdrew unconditionally from Namibia.

SWAPO continued to dominate the political scene into the 21st century, transforming itself from a liberation movement into a governing party. SWAPO won the first and second election five years later.

Committee for Freedom Mozambique, Angola, Guine

  • C0060
  • Corporate body
  • 1968-1975

The UK Committee for Freedom in Mozambique was formed in 1968 at the request of the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), which had launched an armed national liberation struggle against Portuguese colonial rule in 1964. It expanded a year later to cover Angola and Guine-Bissau, where armed struggle was also under way, renaming itself as the Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guine (CFMAG).

CFMAG operated as a campaigning pressure group, aiming to build broad based political support for FRELIMO, the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the African Independence Party of Guine-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC). It worked with all political parties, the labour and student movements, churches, NGOs and many others. It had close relations with the Anti-Apartheid Movement, and encouraged a regional perspective for the future of Southern Africa. It organised visits by liberation movement representatives and various specific political and material aid campaigns, culminating in the End the Alliance Campaign of 1972/3.

Following the 25 April coup in Portugal in 1974 and the subsequent negotiations between the new Portuguese government and the liberation movements, the right of the colonies to full and immediate independence was acknowledged. CFMAG organised a victory party at St Pancras Town Hall on 25 June 1975, Mozambique's Independence Day, and closed down, its objectives achieved.

During the following phase the Mozambique, Angola & Guine Information Centre (MAGIC) was established with support from the independent governments to carry out educational and information work. Political solidarity work continued through first the Angola Solidarity Committeee and then the Mozambique-Angola Committee, with particular emphasis on supporting MPLA during its second war of liberation against the South African army.

Scottish Immigrant Labour Council

  • C0061
  • Corporate body

The Scottish Immigrant Labour Council worked with the Indian Workers Association, Pakistan Social and Cultural Society, shop stewards committees and Labour and Communist Party branches to challenge racist and fascist ideas and to build links between black and ethnic minority communities and the trade union and labour movement. They carried out campaigning against the growing trend of restrictive and racist immigration legislation, supported the struggles of Asian workers in Loughborough, Bradford and Grunwick and held International nights to celebrate the diversity of working class cultures.

International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa

  • C0062
  • Corporate body
  • 1960-1990

The International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa (IDAF) was an anti-apartheid organization that smuggled £100 million into South Africa for the defense of thousands of political activists and to provide aid for their families while they were in prison.

IDAF grew out of Christian Action (CA), an organization set up by John Collins aimed at relating Christianity to economic, social and political life, and that worked towards reconciliation with Germany and help for the starving people of Europe. In 1948 Collins was appointed Canon of St Paul's Cathedral in London. CA raised money raised money for the families and dependents of those sent to prison during the Defiance Campaign. In 1954 John went to South Africa where he saw apartheid and its effects for himself, and met activists and leaders in the liberation movements. In 1956, when 156 activists were arrested and charged with High Treason, Canon Collins sent £100 to Ambrose Reeves, Bishop of Johannesburg, asking him to brief the best available defense lawyers and pledging CA to raise the funds to pay legal expenses and care for the families of the Treason Trialists. Reeves, foreseeing further repression, suggested widening CA's terms of reference and so the British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa (as it was originally called) was born. As repression in South Africa increased, Defence and Aid responded to ever more pressing political and legal defense needs.

The organization grew and began to receive international recognition and support, mainly from the Scandinavian countries and the United Nations. Several countries formed aid committees. IDAF went international in 1965, with branches in Britain, New Zealand, Scandinavia, Holland and India. On March 18, 1966, the then Mister of Justice Johannes Vorster banned the South African Defence and Aid Committee as an 'unlawful organization' under the Suppression of Communism Act but IDAF continued to send aid through secret channels. Over a period of 25 years, £100 million was smuggled into South Africa. The organization also had an extensive research and publication operation. Canon Collins died in 1982 and Horst Kleinschmidt was named Director of IDAF that same year, a position he held until the organization closed.

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